unite 4/5

chapter 4 extentions of Medelian in heritance, chapter 5 non-Medelian inheritance

published on December 17, 20171 response 0

the trait occurs in only one of the two sexes

Sex limited
Sex influenced inheritance
X-linked allele

small colonies of mutants

when the gene function is abolished by creating an organism that is homozygous for a loss-of-function allele

Gene knockout
Holandric gene
Gene modifier affect

the allele causing the disease is recessive and located on the x chromosome

when the alleles of one gene mask the phenotypic effects of the alleles of another gene

Epistasis
Suppressor mutation
Paralogs

is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes

Endosymbiosis theory
Pleiotrophy
Lyon hypothezis

Prevalent (paplitęs) alleles in a natural population

effects of environmental variation on a phenotype

a phenomenon when only one allele of a gene is expressed

Sex influenced inheritance

the trait occurs in only one of the two sexes
that has the potential to cause the death
an allele is dominant in one sex but recessive in the opossite sex

is an evolutionary theory that explains the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotes

Gene interaction
Condition lethal allele
Endosymbiosis theory

a second mutation that reverses the phenotypic effects of a first mutation

Suppressor mutation
Gene interaction
Complementation

organelle where genetic material of mitochondria and chloroplasts is located

how the allelic variants of two different genes affect a single trait

the genetic material that is found in mitochondria. Mitochondria are structures that convey the energy from food into a form that cells can use

nucleoid
cpDNA
mtDNA

the attachement of a methyl group onto a cytosine base – is a common way that eukaryotic genes may be regulated

nucleoid
DNA methylation
mtDNA

Gene modifier affect

the alleles of one gene modify the phenotypic effect of the alleles of a different gene
a condition in which phenotype is intermediate between the corresponding homozygoes individuals
how the allelic variants of two different genes affect a single trait

how the allelic variants of two different genes affect a single trait

a condition in which phenotype is intermediate between the corresponding homozygoes individuals

Epistasis
heteroplazmy
Incomplete dominance

the mechanism of X inactivation

X-linked allele
Lyon hypothezis
Wild-type alleles

compensation by random X-inactivation, of the dosage of gene material in the cells of males and females carrying X-linked genes

Complementation
Dosage compensation
Imprinting control region

the presence of more than one type of organellar genome within a cell or individual

Peternal leakage
heteroplazmy
Heterogamous

Peternal leakage

multiple effects of a single gene on the phenotype of an organism
the transmission of mitochondrial DNA through the males
having unlike gametes, or reproducing by union of such gametes

multiple effects of a single gene on the phenotype of an organism

Monoallelic expression

a phenomenon when only one allele of a gene is expressed
an allele is dominant in one sex but recessive in the opossite sex
the allele causing the disease is recessive and located on the x chromosome

Genetic polymorphism

when heterozygote has a greater reproductive success compared to either corresponding homozygotes
when more than one wild-type allele occurs in large populations
the copies which are not identical due to the accumulation of random changes during evolution

when two alleles are both expressed in the heterozygous individual

codominance
Incomplete dominance
overdominance

Complementation

a second mutation that reverses the phenotypic effects of a first mutation
when the alleles of one gene mask the phenotypic effects of the alleles of another gene
production of offspring with a wild-type phenotype from parents that both display the same or similar recessive phenotype

that has the potential to cause the death

certain lethal alleles which act only in some individuals

Lethal allele
Semilathal allele
Condition lethal allele

inheritanace pattern which involves genes that are not located in the cell nucleus

Maternal inheritance
Epigenetic inheritance
Extranuclear (cytoplasmic) inheritance

it effects the choice of the X chromosome to be inactivated

X-linked allele
Xce
Xic

Simple Mendelian inheritance

the inheritance pattern of the Mic2 gene is the same as the inheritance pattern of a gene located on autosome even though the Mic2 gene is actually
located on the sex chromosomes
traits that are affected by a single gene that is found in two different alleles
production of offspring with a wild-type phenotype from parents that both display the same or similar recessive phenotype

a pattern in which the genotype of the mother directly determines the phenotype of her offspring (an inheritance pattern for certain nuclear genes)

Maternal inheritance
Maternal effect
Incomplete dominance

region that is located near the imprinted gene

Genomic imprinting
Gene interaction
Imprinting control region ICR

chloroplast DNA, chloroplast are a type of plastid that make chlorophyll, a green photosynthetic pigment

X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated

Xce
Xic
X inactivation

Gene interaction

how the allelic variants of two different genes affect a single trait
when two alleles are both expressed in the heterozygous individual
when the gene function is abolished by creating an organism that is homozygous for a loss-of-function allele

in each somatic cell of a normal female, one of the X chromosomes is randomly deactivated. This deactivated X chromosome can be seen as a small, dark-staining structure in the cell nucleus

Barr body
X-chromosomal controlling element,
nucleoid

alleles which may kill the organism only when certain environmental conditions prevail

Lethal allele
Monoallelic expression
Condition lethal allele

an allele is dominant in one sex but recessive in the opossite sex

Sex limited
Sex influenced inheritance
Heterogamous

the age when the symptoms of the disease appear

the copies which are not identical due to the accumulation of random changes during evolution

Pleiotrophy
Epistasis
Paralogs

when heterozygote has a greater reproductive success compared to either corresponding homozygotes

few genes which are located only on Y chromosome

the epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. If the allele inherited from the father is imprinted, it is thereby silenced, and only the allele from the mother is expressed.

Imprinting control region ICR
Genomic imprinting
Dosage compensation

when one of the two x chromosomes is turned off

a pattern in which a modification occurs to a nuclear gene or chromosome that alters gene expression, but is not permanent over the course of many generations

Epigenetic inheritance
Maternal inheritance
Endosymbiosis theory

Heterogamous

having unlike gametes, or reproducing by union of such gametes
the presence of more than one type of organellar genome within a cell or individual
a pattern in which a modification occurs to a nuclear gene or chromosome that alters gene expression, but is not permanent over the course of many
generations

inheritance of characters transmitted through extranuclear elements (as mitochondrial DNA) in the cytoplasm of the egg

a symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont actually lives inside the host

endosymbiosis
Extranuclear inheritance
Epistasis

the inheritance pattern of the Mic2 gene is the same as the inheritance pattern of a gene located on autosome even though the Mic2 gene is actually located on the sex chromosomes

a second cross in which the sexes and phenotypes are reversed