Science Quiz (3)

Science Quiz (3)

Oceans/salt water 97.2% Ice caps and glaciers 2.14% Groundwater: soil moisture 0.005% surface water 0.009% Different types of aquifers: confined and unconfined Confined are between nonporous spaces (aquitards) and unconfined have a water table exposed to earth’s atmosphere thru zone of aeration

published on June 075 responses 0 4.0★ / 5

How does the greenhouse effect work and what does it have to do with climate change?

greenhouse gases absorb IR radiation and keep some in atmosphere which keeps atmospheric temp stable as long as gas amounts remain
stable.
the gases make things colder
it doesnt have to do with climate

what are deep ocean currents, how do they affect Earth and how are they formed?

they are driven by density and temp gradients and formed by differences in water temperature and density. They're called submarine rives and flow under ocean's surface. They're like a conveyer belt, moving warm water and precipitation from equator to poles and cold water from poles to tropics so they regulate global climate, helping balance the uneven distribution of solar radiation hitting Earth's surface.
they are caused by heat
they don't exist

what way do gyres and air flows go in the N. Hemisphere compared to S. Hemisphere?

In N. Hemisphere things move clockwise while S. Hemisphere has counterclockwise movement.
In N. Hemisphere things move counterclockwise while S. Hemisphere has clockwise movement.
In N. Hemisphere things move clockwise and in S. Hemisphere there is clockwise movement.

What is the Coriolis Effect?

It causes surface currents to turn and twist into semicircular whirls called gyres.
It causes deep ocean currents to turn and twist into whirlpools.
It causes surface currents to cause tornados.

how does a cloud form?

Evaporation rate exceeds condensation rate
A rising air parcel cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate until it reaches the dew point.
Condensation of water droplets occurs on condensation nuclei
After saturation, moist adiabatic lapse rate controls how thick the cloud will become
Condensation rate exceeds evaporation rate
A falling air parcel cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate until it reaches saturation
Condensation of water droplets occurs on condensation nuclei
After saturation, moist adiabatic lapse rate controls how thick the cloud will become
Condensation rate exceeds evaporation rate,a rising air parcel cools at the dry adiabatic lapse rate until it reaches saturation
Condensation of water droplets occurs on condensation nuclei
After saturation, moist adiabatic lapse rate controls how thick the cloud will become

What are the major cloud types?

cirrus (sign of changing weather), stratus (light to mod precip), cumulus (fair weather) and cumulonimbus (showers or thunder)
cirrus (sign of changing weather), stratus (light to mod precip), cumulus (fair weather) and cumulostratus (showers or thunder)
cumulocirrus (sign of changing weather), stratus (light to mod precip), cumulus (fair weather) and cumulonimbus (showers or thunder)

What are the different types of atmospheric lifting?

frontal uplift: air rises over mountains, cools. Often loses moisture when reaching other side (rain shadow)
Frontal wedging: masses of warm/cool air collide. Warm air rises. Cirrus to cumulonimbus
Orographic wedging: air rises over mountains, cools. Often loses moisture when reaching other side (rain shadow)
Frontal wedging: masses of warm/cool air collide. Warm air rises. Cirrus to cumulonimbus
Orographic uplift: air rises over mountains, cools. Often loses moisture when reaching other side (rain shadow)
Frontal wedging: masses of warm/cool air collide. Warm air rises. Cirrus to cumulonimbus

What are the major types of storms and how are they formed?

Thunderstorms: Fed by unstable, moist air. Cumulus grows. Humid air rises and cools, condensing into cumulus cloud. Lightning=electrical energy from cloud to ground. Lightning heats up air which expands causing thunder. Hurricanes: positive feedback. Rising air causes low pressure near surface, sucking in more moist air. Winds rotate around a central low-pressure area. Continuous supply of energy from tropical waters. Hurricane weakens when fuel is cut off, landfill or cooler water. and Tornados: funnel shaped air column rotating around low-pressure core which reaches from cumulonimbus cloud to ground. 65-450 KM/hr. Dangerous because of high wind and suction
Thunderstorms: Fed by unstable, moist air. Cumulus grows. Humid air rises and cools, condensing into cumulus cloud. Lightning=electrical energy from cloud to ground. Lightning heats up air which expands causing thunder. Hurricanes: positive feedback. Falling air causes low pressure near surface, sucking in more moist air. Winds rotate around a central low-pressure area. Continuous supply of energy from tropical waters. Hurricane weakens when fuel is cut off, landfill or cooler water. and Tornados: funnel shaped air column rotating around low-pressure core which reaches from cumulonimbus cloud to ground. 65-450 KM/hr. Dangerous because of high wind and suction
Thunderstorms: Fed by stable, dry air. Cumulus grows. Humid air rises and cools, condensing into cumulus cloud. Lightning=electrical energy from cloud to ground. Lightning heats up air which expands causing thunder. Hurricanes: positive feedback. Rising air causes low pressure near surface, sucking in more moist air. Winds rotate around a central low-pressure area. Continuous supply of energy from tropical waters. Hurricane weakens when fuel is cut off, landfill or cooler water. and Tornados: funnel shaped air column rotating around low-pressure core which reaches from cumulonimbus cloud to ground. 65-450 KM/hr. Dangerous because of high wind and suction

How do convection cells form?

Convection is the circular movement of a gas or liquid rising or falling as it becomes hotter or cooler, respectively, is defined. This is how fluids and gases transfer heat when exposed to a heat source. The increase in heat decreases the density of the substance, causing it to fall, while being simultaneously replaced by cooler gas or fluid.
Convection is the circular movement of a gas or liquid rising or falling as it becomes hotter or cooler, respectively, is defined. This is how fluids and gases transfer heat when exposed to a heat source. The increase in heat decreases the density of the substance, causing it to rise, while being simultaneously replaced by cooler gas or fluid.
Convection is the circular movement of a land form rising or falling as it becomes hotter or cooler, respectively, is defined. This is how fluids and gases transfer heat when exposed to a heat source. The increase in heat decreases the density of the substance, causing it to rise, while being simultaneously replaced by cooler gas or fluid.

What are at least 2 different types of climate change proxy data? How are they collected and what do they analyze?

Ice cores: the main evidence to study climate change. They let scientists study accumulation, air temps and chemistry from the past to calculate our current atmospheric gases to the past amounts. The air bubbles in the snow preserve samples of old atmosphere. Seasonal differences in the snow properties create layers – just like rings in trees The ice cores are collected by drilling the oldest ice,in the centre of the ice sheet, near the ice divide. The ice divide is far away from research bases and the ocean.
Marine cores: annual rings that collect on the ocean floor. The changes in the rings have reflected the changes in climate in the last few centuries. Data in includes: changes in organisms and their geochemistry, and the changes in texture and chemistry of sediment.
Tree cores: the main evidence to study climate change. They let scientists study accumulation, air temps and chemistry from the past to calculate our current atmospheric gases to the past amounts. The air bubbles in the snow preserve samples of old atmosphere. Seasonal differences in the snow properties create layers – just like rings in trees The ice cores are collected by drilling the oldest ice,in the centre of the ice sheet, near the ice divide. The ice divide is far away from research bases and the ocean.
Marine cores: annual rings that collect on the ocean floor. The changes in the rings have reflected the changes in climate in the last few centuries. Data in includes: changes in organisms and their geochemistry, and the changes in texture and chemistry of sediment.
Ice cores: the main evidence to study climate change. They let scientists study accumulation, air temps and chemistry from the past to calculate our current atmospheric gases to the past amounts. The air bubbles in the snow preserve samples of old atmosphere. Seasonal differences in the snow properties create layers – just like rings in trees The ice cores are collected by drilling the oldest ice,in the centre of the ice sheet, near the ice divide. The ice divide is far away from research bases and the ocean.
Marine rings: annual rings that collect on the ocean floor. The changes in the rings have reflected the changes in climate in the last few centuries. Data in includes: changes in organisms and their geochemistry, and the changes in texture and chemistry of sediment.

What are the different Milankovitch Cycles?

Earth’s eccentricity cycle (about 100,000 years), Obliquity Cycle (41,000 years) Precession of Equinoxes (29,000 years)
Earth’s eccentricity cycle (about 90,000 years), Obliquity Cycle (41,000 years) Precession of Equinoxes (23,000 years)
Earth’s eccentricity cycle (about 100,000 years), Obliquity Cycle (41,000 years) Precession of Equinoxes (23,000 years)

what gases are causing the greatest increase of atmospheric temperature?

Carbon monoxide, methane and nitrous oxide= 3 well mixed greenhouse gases
Also sulphate aerosols
Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide= 3 well mixed greenhouse gases
Also sulphate aerosols
Carbon dioxide, menthal and nitrous oxide= 3 well mixed greenhouse gases
Also sulphate aerosols

Describe what a feedback system is and how they relate to climate?

Feedback is the response of the climate to the internal variability of climate system and to external forcings. A positive feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect reinforces the cause. This means that the impact will go on increasing. A negative feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect resists the cause. This means that the impact will go on diminishing.
Feedback is the response of the climate to the internal variability of climate system and to external forcings. A negative feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect reinforces the cause. This means that the impact will go on increasing. A positive feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect resists the cause. This means that the impact will go on diminishing.
Feedback is the response of the climate to the internal variability of climate system and to external forcings. A positive feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect reinforces the cause. This means that the impact will go on increasing. A negative feedback cycle is a cycle where the effect resists the cause. This means that the impact will stay the same.

What is the Percentage of global water, freshwater, ice and groundwater?

Oceans/salt water 97.2%

Ice caps and glaciers 2.14%

Groundwater: soil moisture 0.005% surface water 0.009%
Oceans/salt water 90.2%

Ice caps and glaciers 2.14%

Groundwater: soil moisture 0.005% surface water 0.009%
Oceans/salt water 97.2%

Ice caps and glaciers 2.9%

Groundwater: soil moisture 0.005% surface water 0.009%

What are the different types of aquifers and how do they function?

confined and unconfined

Confined are between nonporous spaces (aquitards) and unconfined have a water table hidden from earth’s atmosphere thru zone of aeration
confined and unconfined

Confined are between porous spaces (aquitards) and unconfined have a water table exposed to earth’s atmosphere thru zone of aeration
confined and unconfined

Confined are between nonporous spaces (aquitards) and unconfined have a water table exposed to earth’s atmosphere thru zone of aeration

Difference between aquifer and aquitard?

Aquifers: subsurface areas where H2O collects and flows. Good aquifers have high permeability like poorly cemented sands, gravels or highly fractured rock. If an aquifer has low permeability it’s an aquitard. Examples: tightly packed clay, well cemented sandstones, and igneous/metamorphic rocks lacking fractures= good aquitards.
Aquifers: subsurface areas where H2O collects and flows. Good aquifers have low permeability like poorly cemented sands, gravels or highly fractured rock. If an aquifer has high permeability it’s an aquitard. Examples: tightly packed clay, well cemented sandstones, and igneous/metamorphic rocks lacking fractures= good aquitards.
Aquifers: sinkholes where H2O collects and flows. Good aquifers have high permeability like poorly cemented sands, gravels or highly fractured rock. If an aquifer has low permeability it’s an aquitard. Examples: tightly packed clay, well cemented sandstones, and igneous/metamorphic rocks lacking fractures= good aquitards.

Difference between porosity and hydraulic conductivity?

Porosity: how much fluid a material can hold based on the number of cells in that material

Hydraulic conductivity: how easily a fluid can move thru pore space or fractures
Porosity: how much fluid a material can hold based on the number of pores or open space w/in that material

Hydraulic conductivity: how easily a fluid can move thru pore space or fractures
Porosity: how much fluid a material can hold based on the number of pores or open space w/in that material

Hydraulic conductivity: how easily a fluid can move saturate a space or fractures

What happends during carbonate dissolution?

It explodes
It fizzes
NOthing

What formations are made by limestone being dissolved?

chalk
sedimentary rocks
caves/caverns, sinkholes or karst landscapes

Features of a meandering stream and how they're formed?

A meandering stream migrates laterally by sediment erosion on the outside of the meander (that is part of the friction work), and deposition on the inside (helicoidal flow, deceleration, channel lag, point bar sequence, fining upwards). Adjacent to the channel levee deposits build up, and gradually raise up the river over the floodplain (mainly fine sediments). Meanders grow laterally through erosion (outside bend) and sediment deposition (inside bend, point bar) Oxbow lakes are formed if river finds a shortcut that is less “taxing” when the loops get too large. The old channel becomes abandoned, forming the lake.
A meandering stream migrates horizontally by sediment erosion on the outside of the meander (that is part of the friction work), and deposition on the inside (helicoidal flow, deceleration, channel lag, point bar sequence, fining upwards). Adjacent to the channel levee deposits build up, and gradually raise up the river over the floodplain (mainly fine sediments). Meanders grow laterally through erosion (outside bend) and sediment deposition (inside bend, point bar) Oxbow lakes are formed if river finds a shortcut that is less “taxing” when the loops get too large. The old channel becomes abandoned, forming the lake.
A meandering stream migrates laterally by sediment erosion on the outside of the meander (that is part of the friction work), and deposition on the outside (helicoidal flow, deceleration, channel lag, point bar sequence, fining upwards). Adjacent to the channel levee deposits build up, and gradually raise up the river over the floodplain (mainly fine sediments). Meanders grow laterally through erosion (outside bend) and sediment deposition (inside bend, point bar) Oxbow lakes are formed if river finds a shortcut that is less “taxing” when the loops get too large. The old channel becomes abandoned, forming the lake.