Biology 171

All of the quizzes done in the class composed into one test. How much do you remember from class?

published on May 08, 20144 responses 1 5.0★ / 5

Each turn of the Calvin cycle requires:

one carbon dioxide
two carbon dixoides
three carbon dixoides
four carbon dioxides

The structure identified as number 5 is a(n):

protein
nucleic acid
carbohydrate
lipid

Which statement is least satisfactory?

carbon atoms form four chemical bonds each
hydrogen occurs in nature as a diatomic molecule
a molecule of diatomic oxygen is a polar molecule
water is a polar molecule
sodium and chloride ions are hydrophilic

Which tissue within a leaf actually performs the process of photosynthesis?

epidermis
mesophyll
xylem
phloem

T or F: All amino acids have an amino group and a carboxyl group.

True
False
-

Atomic mass is calculated by adding the number of:

neutrons and protons
neutrons and electrons
protons and electrons

A celll is placed in a hypertonic solution. What will happen to the cell, and why?

the cell will decrease in volume because it will rapidly lose
solutes to the surrounding solution
the cell will decrease in volume because it will rapidly lose
water to the surrounding solution
the cell will increase in volume because it will rapidly gain
solutes from the surrounding solution
the cell will increase in volume because it will rapidly gain
water from the surrounding solution

T or F: In chemical reactions between two atoms which each have two or more electron shells, the outermost electrons are more involved than are the innermost electrons.

True
False
-

Which two processes directly involve a membrane protein?

facilitated diffuion and active transport
active transport and diffusion
diffusion and facilitated diffusion

Large solid particles can be brought into a cell by:

facilitated diffusion
diffusion
active transport
receptor-mediated endocytosis
phagocytsis

What two products of the light reactions are needed by the Calvin cycle?

ATP; NADPH
oxygen; water
oxygen; ATP
NADPH; water
carbon dioxide; water

Components of the cytoskeleton are made of:

nucleic acid
carbohydrate
lipid
protein

In receptor-mediated endocytosis, the receptors are:

nucleic acids
carbs
lipids
proteins

Which cell type has a nucleus?

prokaryotic
eukaryotic
-

T or F: Glucose is directly made by the Calvin cycle.

True
False
-

Which requires an energy input to occur?

diffusion
facilitated diffusion
active transport

Which functional group is shown?

Which functional group is shown?
amino
carboynl
hydroxyl
methyl
carboxyl

The atoms of one particular element can best be characterized by:

number of protons
number of electrons
atomic mass

The specific heat of water is 1 calorie/gram/C. The temperature of 3 grams of water is increased by 20C. How many calories were consumed to make the temperature change?

3
20
23
45
60

Which would contain more hydrogen?

a 20 carbon fatty acid that is unsaturated
a 20 carbon fatty acid that is saturated
-

Which end is more polar?

Which end is more polar?
upper portion
lower portion
-

Lithium has two electrons in its first shell and one electron in its second shell. Oxygen has an atomic number of 8. What would be the correct chemical formula of lithium oxide?

LiO
Li2O
LiO2
Li2O2
Li3O

If a cell (5%) is placed in a solution (2%). How are the cell and the solution related?

the cell is hypotonic to the solution and the solution is
hypotonic to the cell
the cell is hypotonic to the solution and the solution is
hypertonic to the cell
the cell is hypertonic to the solution and the solution is
hypotonic to the cell
the cell is hypertonic to the solution and the solution is
hypertonic to the cell

A solution has a [H+] of 0. (seven 0's) .1M. What is the pH of this solution?

4
5
6
7
8

Which is least accurate?

plants create energy during photosynthesis
exergonic reactions are energy releasing reactions
plants can perform aerobic cellular respiration
kinetic energy is energy associated with movement
in all chemical reactions, some energy is lost as heat

Which term is most strongly associated with randomness?

enthalpy
free energy
energy
entropy
endergonic reaction

As a cell gets bigger, assuming its shape does not change, the surface area to volume ratio of this cell:

stays the same
decreases
increases

The number 1 is pointing to:

small ribosomal subunit
large ribosomal subunit
ER signal sequence
growing polypeptide chain
mRNA

Which base i found in RNA, but not in DNA?

uracil
adenine
guanine
thymine
cytosine

Which is the least accurate?

biological membranes can contain cholesterol
phospholipid molecules are usually locked into position
within the membrane
short carbohydrate chains can be attached to membrane
proteins
each biological biological membrane consists of two leaflets
cholesterol's (simplified structure shown at right) orientation
with a membrane is such that the OH is in a hydrophilic
zone

Which type of substance is more associated with the ability to form hydrogen bonds?

polar molecule
non-polar molecule
-

T or F: A phospholipid is fully constructed in the cytosol before is is inserted into the ER membrane.

True
False
-

T or F: Since argon has an atomic number of 18, atoms of argon would be expected to be highly reactive with most other elements.

fluorine and chlorine
fluorine and beryllium
chlorine and beryllium

Acids are substances that:

donate hydrogen ions to a solution
have a pH above 7
minimize pH changes
are very hydrophobic
do not dissolve well in water

Glucose has the chemical formula C6H12O6. Assume that two glucose molecules are joined by dehydration synthesis. What would be true regarding the dimer thus formed?

it would have 11 carbon atoms
its chemical formula would be C12H24O12
it would have the same number of hydrogen as oxygen
atoms
its chemical formula would be C12H22O11
the number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the
dimer would be the same

Keeping in mind the organelle depicted, how many phospholipid bilayers are between the arrow indicated by the 3 and the arrow indicated by the 7?

Keeping in mind the organelle depicted, how many phospholipid bilayers are between the arrow indicated by the 3 and the arrow indicated by the 7?
one
two
three
four
five

What molecule is this?

What molecule is this?
chlorophyll a
carotenoid
phospholipid
protein
hexose

Which contains more free energy?

ATP
ADP + free phosphate group
-

T or F: Proteins that become incorporated into the ER membrane would have earlier possessed an ER signal sequence.

True
False
-

T or F: When the elctrons eventually make their way to photosystem I during the light reactions, these electrons will have the same amount of potential energy as when they left photosystem II.

True
False
-

T or F: During N-linked gylcosylation, the olisaccharide (carbohydrate tree) can be attracted to a wide variety of different amino acids.

True
False
-

T or F: Carbon fixation by plants refers to carbon that has been removed from the atmosphere and added to an organic molecule that is not a gas.

True
False
-

Prior to being attached to the polypeptide by oligosaccharide transferase, the oligosaccharide would have been attached to:

dolichol
the ribosome
signal peptidase
the mRNA
the nucleus

Alpha-helices and Beta-sheets are stabilized primarily by:

hydrophobic effects
ionic
disulfide bridges
hydrogen bonds
van der Waals forces

With respect to microscopy, the ability to observe two adjacent objects as separate from each other is:

magnification
contrast
resolution
edification

Which structural level of a protein is based on the protein's amino acid sequence?

primary
secondary
tertiary
quarternary

An enzyme will have half of its potential activity (reaction time) when the [substrate] is at the Km. T or F: In order to double the level of enzyme activity, one would only need to double the Km.

True
False
-

Which organelle membrane is the process shown taking place in?

Which organelle membrane is the process shown taking place in?
Golgi body
nucleus
plasma membrane
endoplasmic reticulum
chloroplast

Consider a 1M (one molar) solution (assume solvent is water) of MgCl2 and a 1M solution of NacCl. How would the freezing points of the two solutions compare?

MgCl2 solution's freezing point would be lower
NaCl soution's freezing point would be lower
-

T or F: These two chemical structures are isomers of C4H10. Assume the appropriate numbers of hydrogens are attached to each carbon framework.

T or F: These two chemical structures are isomers of C4H10. Assume the appropriate numbers of hydrogens are attached to each carbon framework.
True
False
-

T or F: Since plant cells possess chloroplasts, they do not have a mitochondria.

True
False
-

When a reaction center chlorophyll a receives a replacement electron from water, this replacement electron:

is at a relatively high energy level
is at a relatively low energy level
is used to oxidize the reaction center chlorophyll a
is first passed to a chlorophyll a in the light harvesting
complex, after that this electron is passed to the reaction
center chlorophyll a
will become part of ATP as part of the light reactions

From a base composition perspective, if a DNA molecule is found to be 30% A, then it must be ____T.

0%
10%
20%
30%
40%

Assume that the concentrations of solutes are equal on both sides of a plasma membrane. The solutions on the two sides of the membrane would be:

isotonic to each other
hypotonic to each other
hypertonic to each other
plasmolyzed

Another solution has a pH of 11. How many times more concentrated are the hydrogen ions than the pH of 8?

4
10,000
3
30
1000

The stroma is located at the number:

The stroma is located at the number:
1
2
3
4
5
6

What term refers to substances that minimize pH change?

acids
bases
buffers
alkaline
hydrogen ions

The energy contained in chemical bonds is considered a form of:

potential energy
kinectic energy
-

Which of these molecules could be polymerized to from cellulose?

Which of these molecules could be polymerized to from cellulose?
A
B
-

The building of a long polypeptide chain during translation from many individual amino acids would involve ___ reactions.

exergonic
endergonic
-

Based on the orientation of the structures shown in the diagram, the ER lumen would be

Based on the orientation of the structures shown in the diagram, the ER lumen would be
below the phospholipid bilayer (labeled 5 above)
above the phospholipid bilayer
-

Monosaccharides are usually quite soluble in water because (in the ring form, as shown in class) they contain numerous ___ groups,

hydroxyl
carboxyl
methyl
sulfhydryl
phosphate

Is the molecule shown to the in the cis or trans form?

Is the molecule shown to the in the cis or trans form?
cis
trans
-

Based on the figure below, which wavelength of visible light does chlorophyll a absorb best?

400 violet
550
500 green
450 blue

T or F: Formation of ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation is powered by a H+ electrochemical gradient.

True
False
-

T or F: The atomic mass of carbon is not exactly 12.000 because carbon atoms vary in neutrons per atom.

True
Flase
-

Which cell type has a well-developed nucleus?

eukaryotic
prokaryotic
-

Light is composed of discrete particles called:

electrons
protons
neutrons
photons
pigments

In the diagram, the oligosaccharide would be number

In the diagram, the oligosaccharide would be number
1
2
3
4
5

Which exhibits a greater degree of entropy

glucose molecules
six CO2 molecules
-

On what structure or within what region within a chloroplast does the Calvin cycle take place?

matrix
stroma
thylakoid

The matrix is located at the number:

The matrix is located at the number:
1
2
3
4
5
6

Which is least complex (closest to the smaller end of the organizational continuum) ?

molecule
population
community
organanelle
cells

Which curve would more likely involve an enzyme?

Which curve would more likely involve an enzyme?
A
B
-

The understanding the "energy cannot be created or destroyed" is central to the:

first law of thermodynamics
concept of entropy
concept of free energy
understanding of enthalpy

The specific substances that an enzyme acts upon is the ___ of the enzyme.

active substrate
substrate
ATP
domain
amino acid

Oligosaccharide transferase is a(n):

Oligosaccharide transferase is a(n):
protein
lipid
carbohydrate
nucleic acid

T or F: A hydrogen bond itself is formed by electron exchange

True
False
-

The specific notch/ place on the enzyme where the molecule(s) acted upon attach to the enzyme is called the:

active site
substrate
ATP
domain
amino acid sequence

Magnesium has an atomic number of 12. The atomic number of chlorine is 17. The correct formula for magnesium chloride would be:

MgCl
Mg2Cl
MgCl2
Mg2Cl3
Mg3Cl

Which amino acid in the polypeptide chain is the oligosaccharide connected to?

glycine
lysine
alanine
threonine
asparagine

T or F: A protein made of one polypeptide, since it has an overall three dimensional shape, will exhibit the quaternary level of protein structure.

True
False
-

Which is not a lipid?

wax
steriod
fat
oil
cellulose

Proteins are polymers of:

amino acids
monosaccharides
phospholipids
nucleotides
oils

Which side of the membrane is the water splitting complex (enzyme complex that does photolysis) on?

Which side of the membrane is the water splitting complex (enzyme complex that does photolysis) on?
thylakoid space side
stroma side
-

Which has more energy available to do work in the cell?

ATP
ADP + inorganic phosphate group
-

What is the general term for the reaction in which a polysaccharide is broken down into its component monomers?

dehydration synthesis
hydrogen bonding
hydrolysis
ionic bonding

Within cells, endergonic reactions are usually directly driven by/coupled with:

facilitated diffusion
diffusion
translation
ATP hydrolysis
competitive inhibitors

The channel protein is number:

4
5
6
7
8

On what structure or within what region within a chloroplast do the light reactions take place?

stroma
matrix
thylakoid

Isotopes of a single element vary in number of:

protons
electrons
neutrons

Plants possess:

Plants possess:
only the top organelle
only the bottom organelle
both the top and the bottom organelle

The graph shown at the top of the page depicts an:

The graph shown at the top of the page depicts an:
exergonic reaction
endergonic reaction
-

These substances remove H+ from solutions

acids
bases
-

Consider the diatomic molecule H--H. The dash between the H's represents:

a single electron
a pair of electrons
two pairs of electrons
an ionic bond
a hydrogen bond

Lipids are generally:

hydrophobic
hydrophilic
-

Which term best describes an atom's ability to attract electrons it shares in a chemical bond with another atom?

stability
magnetism
electronegativity
cohesion
adhesion

The proteome concept refers to all of the ____ that given cell or organism makes.

nucleic acids
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins

The number 4 is pointing to:

small ribosomal subunit
large ribosomal subunit
ER signal sequence
growing polypeptide chain
mRNA

Which two substances are produced by the light reactions that are required by the Calvin cycle?

carbon dioxide; water
oxygen; water
ATP; NADPH
ATP; oxygen
ADP; water

Note the polypeptide has numerous amino acids in the hydrophobic core of the membrane. Which of the amino acids below is more likely to be in the hydrophobic core based on the chemistry of the R group?

Note the polypeptide has numerous amino acids in the hydrophobic core of the membrane.  Which of the amino acids below is more likely to be in the hydrophobic core based on the chemistry of the R group?
leucine
aspartic acid
-

These substances donate H+ to solutions

acids
bases
-

Atom A has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. Atom B has 6 protons and 7 neutrons. Atom A and B:

belong to the same element
have the same atomic masses
have different atomic numbers
have different numbers of electrons in the neutral,
uncombined state
would not combine in the same ratio with the atoms of
another element

Assume a Na+/K+ ATPase (sodium-potassium pump) transports 360 sodium ions from one side of a membrane to the other 240 potassium ions in the other direction. How many ATP molecules were utilized to make this happen?

1
10
60
120
180

Which of these molecules could be polymerized to form starch (amylose)?

Which of these molecules could be polymerized to form starch (amylose)?
A
B
-

Which of the two reactions is more likely to exhibit the energy relationships shown by the A curve?

Which of the two reactions is more likely to exhibit the energy relationships shown by the A curve?
ATP ---ADP +Pi
glucose + fructose ---->sucrose
-

The process of translation is initiated:

inside the nucleus
inside the ER
in the cytosol
outside of the cell
at a chromosome

Which functional group is shown?

Which functional group is shown?
amino
carboynl
hydroxyl
methyl
carboxyl

In a protein, the bond between two amino acids is called:

ionic bond
glycosidic bond
peptide bond
James Bond
hydrogen bond

Which of these is most likely to occur?

Which of these is most likely to occur?
A
B
C

Which is more reduced?

NAD+
NADH
-

Which has more free energy?

glucose molecule
six CO2 molecules
-

A granum is indicated by:

A granum is indicated by:
1
2
3
4
5
6

Which is most specific?

pinocytosis
receptor-mediated endocytosis
phagocytosis
exocytosis
endocytosis

Note the models of aspartic acid and leucine shown below. Based on the chemistry of the R groups (the variable or side group) only, which amino acid would more likely be in the bilayer interior at the position labeled 7 of the transmembrane protein?

Note the models of aspartic acid and leucine shown below.  Based on the chemistry of the R groups (the variable or side group) only, which amino acid would more likely be in the bilayer interior at the position labeled 7 of the transmembrane protein?
leucine
aspartic acid
-

Which subatomic particle is positively charged?

electron
neutrino
neutron
proton

Which functional group is shown?

Which functional group is shown?
amino
carbonyl
hydroxyl
methyl
carboxyl

Which cytoskeletal element is a polymer of tubulin?

actin filiments
intermediate filaments
microtubules

T or F: Water attracted to sugar is cohesion; water attracted to water is adhesion

True
False
-

The specific substance that an enzyme acts upon/changes is called the:

active site
substrate
domain
primary structure
quaternary structure

Number 9 indicates

Number 9 indicates
lipid
glycoprotein
glycolipid
peripheral protein
ribosome

NADH is an important energy exchange molecule for organisms. Which group is NADH most like?

proteins
carbohydrates
nucleic acids
lipids

Based on the principles discussed in class, how many reactions would be required to chemically break down a trimer (molecule consisting of three monomers) into its three component monomers?

1
2
3
4
5

Which is in a more reduced state?

NAD+
NADH
-

Where is this molecule most likely to be found?

Where is this molecule most likely to be found?
stroma
matrix
thylakoid membrane
outer membrane of chloroplast
inner membrane of chloroplast

What is the best name for this molecule?

What is the best name for this molecule?
fat
phospholipid
amino acid
carbohydrate
cellulose

Which process is least associated with the generation of a [H+] gradient during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

photolysis
formation of NADPH
movement of protons by PQ and the cytochrome complex
reduction of platocyanin

Energy associated with motion is called:

kinetic
potential
-

Which is the most permanent of the cytoskeletal elements?

actin filaments
intermediate filiments
microtubules

If once compares the carbon atom in carbon dioxide with the carbon atoms in a sugar such as glucose, the carbon in the sugar is in a:

less reduced state
more reduced state
-

Which was not an important concept, understanding, outcome, or material to Rutherford's experiment discussed in class?

like charges repel
zinc sulfide detection screens
gold foil
atoms are mostly empty space
the nucleus of an atom includes neutrons as well as protons

Each carbon atom will form ___ chemical bonds.

1
2
3
4
5