Physiology question 2

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Which of the following situations increases hemoglobin O2 affinity?

Increased body Temperature
Increased Carbon Dioxide (CO2) inhalation
Increased Hydrogen ion (H+) blood concentration

With respect to diaphragmatic contraction during inspiration:

Makes intra-alveolar pressure more positive compared atmospheric pressure
Makes trans-pulmonary pressure higher than atmospheric pressure
Makes intra-pleural pressure more negative than atmospheric pressure
Pushes the diaphragm upward and abdominal wall moves in

The most important physiologic stimulus controlling the level of resting ventilation is:

PO2 on peripheral chemoreceptors
PCO2 on peripheral chemoreceptors.
Hydrogen ion concentration on peripheral chemoreceptors.
Hydrogen ion concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid

Concerning the mucociliary escalator in the lung:

Cigarette smoke does not affect cilia movement
Trapped particles move faster in the trachea than in the peripheral airways
The composition of the mucous layers is never altered by disease
Normal clearance takes several days

A 5-year-old child presents with a right to left shunt due to a patent foramen oval Which of the following variables would you predict to be increased in this individual

Arterial Dissolved O2 content
Alveolar-arterial O2 difference
Venous PO2
Arterial PO2

A cerebrovascular tumor that affects forced expirations during rest and exercise most likely damaged which respiratory center neural area?

Apneustic Center
Pneumotaxic Center
Phrenic nerve center
Ventral Respiratory Group

Concerning ventilation of the lungs:

The anatomical dead space is the volume of air taken in during a breath that does not enter the alveoli
The physiologic dead space is always greater than the anatomic dead space
The anatomic dead space is independent of the tidal volume
In an upright lung, the alveolar ventilation is always highest at the base

Regarding the pulmonary circulation:

The pressures in the pulmonary arteries are similar to those in the systemic arteries.
The resistance of the pulmonary circulation rises as the pulmonary blood flow increases.
The mean pressure in the pulmonary arteries rises as cardiac output increases.
The pattern of pulmonary blood flow is independent of posture

Concerning the control of respiration:

The respiratory muscles have an intrinsic rhythmical activity
The basic neural machinery for the generation of the respiratory rhythm is located in the lower medulla
Respiration will stop if all afferent nerves to the lungs are cut
The respiratory center is unable to increase ventilator drive if needed

Hypercapnia would:

Produce respiratory alkalosis.
Stimulate decreased ventilation.
Stimulate firing of both the central and peripheral chemoreceptors.
Be compensated for by metabolic acidosis.

A 42-year-old male with a high pH and a low PCO2 in his Arterial Blood Gases, most probably has:

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

23-year-old female with a low pH and a high PCO2 in his Arterial Blood Gases, most probably has:

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Haldane Effect is best described as:

The amount of gas that moves across a sheet of tissue is proportional to the area of the sheet, but inversely proportional to the thickness of the sheet.
Removal of oxygen from hemoglobin increases hemoglobin affinity for carbon dioxide
Describes airway resistance
Pressure inside a spherical structure is directly proportional to tension in wall and inversely proportional to radius of sphere, Surfactant plays a key role in lung function explained by this law.

According to the Alveolar Ventilation Equation, if alveolar ventilation INCREASES:

Alveolar PCO2 remains unchanged
Alveolar PCO2 has nothing to do with this relationship
Alveolar PCO2 decreases
Alveolar PO2 decreases

During exercise the Oxygen Dissociation curve:

Does not shift
Shifts to the right
Shifts to the left
Shifts the day after exercising

Match the Acid Base disorder from the list to the corresponding ionic abnormalities (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L). 52-year-old male with a high pH, a low PCO2 and a HCO3 within rang

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Match the Acid Base disorder from the list to the corresponding ionic abnormalities (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L). 42-year-old female with a high pH, high HCO3 and PCO2 within rang

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Match the Acid Base disorder from the list to the corresponding ionic abnormalities (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L). 28-year-old male with a low pH, high PCO2 and HCO3 within rang

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Match the Acid Base disorder from the list to the corresponding ionic abnormalities (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L). 43-year-old male with a low pH, low HCO3 and PCO2 within rang

Respiratory Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Select the Respiratory Control Center from the list that best applies to the description given: Most important receptors involved in the minute to minute control of respiration. Are surrounded by Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and respond to changes in its H+ concentration. Increase in H+ stimulates ventilation. A decrease inhibits ventilation. *Thus CO2 level in blood regulates ventilation chiefly by its effect on the CSF.

Brainstem Group
Lung Receptors
Central Chemoreceptors
Peripheral Chemoreceptors

Select the Respiratory Control Center from the list that best applies to the description given:

Brainstem Group
Cortex
Lung Receptors
Central Chemoreceptors
Peripheral Chemoreceptors

Select the Respiratory Control Center from the list that best applies to the description given: This control center consists of three main Groups: 1) Medullary Respiratory Center: (Dorsal Group controls Inspiration). 2) Apneustic Center - Lower pons. 3) Pneumotaxic Center - Demonstrated in animals by direct electrical stimulation. Believed to play a role in fine tuning of Respiratory Rhythm.

Brainstem Group
Cortex
Lung Receptors
Central Chemoreceptors

Select the cause of hypoxemia from the list that best applies to the conditions or description given: Conditions in which there is a decreased transit time of the RBC at alveolus, such as increased cardiac output or anemia

Hypoventilation
Diffusion
Shunt
Anorexia

Select the cause of hypoxemia from the list that best applies to the conditions or description given: Hypoxemia easy to reverse by adding O2.

Hypoventilation
Diffusion
Shunt
Ventilation Perfusion Inequality

Select the cause of hypoxemia from the list that best applies to the conditions or description given: Hypoxemia responds poorly to added O2.

Hypoventilation
Diffusion
Shunt
Ventilation Perfusion Inequality

Select the cause of hypoxemia from the list that best applies to the conditions or description given: Impairment of both Oxygen and CO2 transfer results.

Hypoventilation
Diffusion
Shunt
Ventilation Perfusion Inequality

The oxy hemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted to the left by:

Increased temperature
Increased pH
Increased 2,3 DPG
All of the above

A 29-year-old male living at sea level experiences headache and nausea after traveling to a ski resort (alt. 8,000 ft). Within a day his symptoms improve and he feels well enough to ski. Which of the following accounts for his physiologic accommodation?

Central chemoreceptor adaptation
Pulmonary stretch receptor stimulation
Red blood cell synthesis
Hemoglobin isoform alteration

A 43-year-old male is admitted in a com Analysis of arterial blood indicates that: pH 7.1, PCO 2: 16 mmHg, HCO3: 5mmol/l. What is the underlying acid-base disorder? (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L).

Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis

In a 50-year-old female undergoing surgery it was necessary to aspirate the contents of the upper gastrointestinal tract. After surgery, the following values were obtained from an arterial blood sample: pH 7.55, PCO2: 52 mmHg, HCO3: 40 mmol/l. What is the underlying disorder? (Lab Reference Ranges: pH: 7.35-7.45, PCO2: 35-45mmHg and HCO3: 21-28 mEq/L).

Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Metabolic Acidosis

Which of the following laboratory results indicate a compensating metabolic alkalosis?

High pH, low PCO2 and normal bicarbonate
Low pH, low PCO2 and low bicarbonate
Low pH, high PCO2 and normal bicarbonate
High pH, low PCO2 and high bicarbonate