Biology Chapter 7: Animal Biology

Biology Chapter 7: Animal Biology

This is a quiz I made in order to help me study for my biology final at Kansas State University.

published on December 10, 201213 responses 0 5.0★ / 5

Which of these is NOT matched correctly?

Jugular Vein; receives blood draining from the head,
neck, and brain.
Superior Vena Cava; receives blood from all areas
above the diaphragm.
Pulmonary Vein; delivers oxygenated blood from
lungs to heart.
Inferior Vena cava; returns blood to the heart from all
regions of the diaphragm.
Femoral Vein; carries blood away from the thigh and
inner knee.
All of the above are correct

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of connective tissue?

scattered within the extracellular matrix
attach epithelium to other tissues
protect and cushion organs
provide flexible and firm structural support
coat body surfaces
all of the above are correct

Which of these describes an advantage of segmentation? (may be more than one correct answer)

Select the three correct answers
Makes movement more efficient
Allows for the formation of a repetitive body plan that
arises unique structures
Allows for an extra digestive enzyme (lipase) to be
produced
Allows for a more specialized development of
appendages

Which classifications of organisms are dueteronosomes?

Chordates
Echinoderms
Both
Neither

____ pathways convey information from the central nervous system to muscles and glands.

sensory
motor

Which of these describes a hydrostatic skeleton?

Fluid constrained within a layer of flexible tissue. (Ex. worm,
jellyfish)
Skeleton on the outside of an animal. Internal muscles pull
against the skeleton, enabling the animal to move. Most consist
of chitin. (Ex. crabs)
Skeleton on the inside of an animal. Vertebrate animals have
these, made of cartilage or bone.

____ carry oxygen.

plasma
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)

Blood, bone, and muscle are examples of ____.

organs
tissues
cells

1. ATP splits, which provides power to "cock" the myosin cross bridges.
2. Cross bridges bind actin to myosin.
3. Binding sites on actin molecules are exposed.
4. Cross bridges pull thin filament (power stroke); ADP and P are releases from myosin.
5. New ATP binds to myosin, releasing linkages.

2,3,5,4,1
3,2,4,1,5
3,4,2,5,1
3,2,4,5,1

FSH stimulates the early stages of sperm formation in the testes. Sperm formation is complete under the influence of LH, which also prompts the cells in the testes to release testosterone.

True
False

Which neurons connect one neuron to another within the spinal cord and brain? (90% of all neurons)

Interneurons
Motor neurons
Sensory neurons

Which of these describes skeletal muscle?

Composition: Elongated cells, each containing many nuclei;
striated.
Functions: Moves to the nones of skeleton; voluntary.
Location: Attached to bone.
Composition: Short, branched cells, each containing one
nucleus; striated.
Composition: Short, branched cells, each containing one
nucleus; striated.
Functions: Contraction of atria and ventricles in heart;
involuntary.
Location: Walls of heart
Composition: Spindle-shaped cells, each containing one
nucleus.
Functions: Slow, involuntary movements.
Location: Digestive tract; arteries.

The ____ controls posture and balance and coordinates subconscious muscular movements.

pons
medulla oblongata
cerebrum
cerebellum

The ____ is the innermost germ (tissue) layer.

mesoderm
endoderm
ectoderm

The liquid component of blood that exchanges water and many dissolved substances with intestinal fluid is ____.

plasma
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)

____ initiate clotting.

plasma
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)

The pons, medulla oblongata, and the cerebellum reside in the ____.

hindbrain
midbrain
forebrain

The peripheral nervous system consists of nerve cells outside of the central nervous system. It is divided into sensory pathway and motor pathways. ____ pathways carry signals to the central nervous system from sensors in the skin, skeletal muscles, and other organs.

sensory
motor

The ____ system, part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system, accelerates heart rate and breathing rate, shunts blood away from the digestive system and to the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles necessary for "fight or flight." It also dilutes airways, easing gas exchange.

sympathetic
parasympathetic

A(n) ____ maintains the resting potential via active transport.

axon
sodium-potassium pump
nerve fiber
All of the above

Which vitamin has a deficiency symptom of scurvy?

Biotin
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Vitamin K
Thiamine

The ____ connects the forebrain with the medulla and the cerebellum.

pons
midbrain
hindbrain
cerbrum

The ____ system performs the process known as gas exchange, that occurs when blood circulates into the lungs.

lymphatic
circulatory
respiratory
digestive

Which mineral has a deficiency symptom of anemia?

Manganese
Cobalt
Iron
Iodine

Which process is used to get monosaccharides and amino acids into the epithelial cells of the small intestine?

active transport
passive transport
osmosis
diffusion

Which of these correctly describes a synapse?

also called the nerve fiber, is typically a single long extension
of the cell body. It is finely branched at its tip and each tiny
terminal extension communicates with anther cell at a synapse.
Junction at which a neuron communicates with another cell.
The enlarged rounded part of a neuron that contains the
nucleus, mitochondria that supply ATP, ribosomes that
manufacture proteins, and other organelles.
Short, branched extensions that transmit information toward
the cell body.

When blood glucose concentration is too high, beta cells of the pancreas secrete this hormone, which lowers blood pressure.

glucagon
testosterone
estrogen
insulin

Which of these is true regarding viruses? (More than one is correct) (Remember that viruses can mutate)

Select the five correct answers
They are only 1/500 the size of eukaryotic cells.
There are no generalities about viral shapes.
The coat of a virus us composed of capsid proteins.
Genetic information resides in the inner core.
A bilayer membrane, or envelope, surrounding the
cell exists in some viruses.
Viruses can't evolve.

Viruses are never beneficial to humans.

True
False

1. Unoxygenated blood from the body returns to the heart via vena cava. 2. Unoxygenated blood enters right atrium. 3. Unoxygenated blood enters right ventricle. 4. Unoxygenated blood is pumped to lungs via pulmonary artery. 5. Gas diffusion takes place within the lungs. 6. Oxygenated blood leaves the lungs via pulmonary vein. 7. Oxygenated blood enters the left atrium. 8. Oxygenated blood enters the left ventricle. 9. Oxygenated blood is pumped out to the body via aorta.

Okay, Joe.
I'm gay

A(n) ____ is a brief depolarization that propagates like a wave along the membrane of the nerve fiber. A small amount of Na+ leaks into the cell through the open channels, causing the interior to become less negative.

action potential
resting potential
polarity potential

Which mineral has a deficiency symptom of goiter (enlarged thyroid gland)?

Manganese
Cobalt
Iron
Iodine

Herbivores have large cecums, which forms the entrance to the large intestine. They also have larger large intestines to break down plants. These adaptations allow them to obtain and digest food more efficiently.

True
False

Which type of reproduction is advantageous in changing environments?

asexual
sexual

The ____ processes information any relays it to the cerebrum.

pons
cerebellum
thalamus
medulla oblongata

____ destroy foreign substances and initiate inflammation

plasma
red blood cells (erythrocytes)
white blood cells (leukocytes)
platelets (thrombocytes)

FSH and LH stimulate the events that lead to ovulation.

True
False

The ____ consists of white matter, which transmits information within the brain and gray matter, which consists of neuron cell bodies that aid in sensory, motor, and association areas.

thalamus
cerebrum
pons
medulla oblongata

The human eye is an example of a(n) ____.

cell
organ system
organ
tissue

A ____ is a signaling molecule that is released by one cell that acts on other "target cells." They are delivered to the "target cells" via bloodstream.

Lipids use ____ because they are non-polar and can cross the plasma membrane readily.

active transport
passive transport
osmosis
diffusion

The ____ regulates psychological processes such as blood pressure, heartbeat, and breathing.

pons
cerebellum
thalamus
medulla oblongata

In osmoregulation, if a cell's environment is saltier than the cell itself, water moves ___ the cell. In the opposite, water moves ____ the cell.

out of; into
into; out of

Which of these is NOT matched correctly?

sight; photoreceptor
hearing; mechanoreceptor
taste; mechanoreceptor
smell; chemoreceptor
touch; mechanoreceptor

The mesoderm is the embryonic germ ayer between the endoderm and the ectoderm.

True
False

Which is NOT considered an advantage of bilateral symmetry?

Allows for the animal to have directed movement
Allows for a quicker, and precise response to
stimulation
Allows the animal to be "cut in half" one multiple
planes
Nervous System is cephalized and more complex
All of the above are advantages

Why aren't viruses regarded as living organisms?

They have no cells.
They cannot respond to their environment.
They have no metabolism.
Their replication is completely dependent on using
host cellular enzymes and machinery.
All of the above are true

A(n) ____ regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering blood, reabsorbing what is needed, and removing the rest in urine.

axon
nephron
proton
ion

Breathing and aerobic respiration are the same thing.

True
False

Which of these transports urine out of the body?

ureter
urethra
urinary bladder

T cells mature in the ____ gland. T cells regulate the function of almost all other immune system cells.

hypothalamus
thymus
sweat
renal

A fish has a two chambered heart (one atrium, where blood enters; one ventricle, where blood exits). The three chambered heart (two atriums, one ventricle) of a frog or turtle allows for blood from the pulmonary and systematic circuits may mix in the ventricle. A bird or mammal has a four chambered heart, maximizing the separation of the pulmonary and systematic circuits.

True
False

Which of the following characteristics does NOT apply to animals?

multicellularity
heterotrophic
do not have cell walls
autotrophic
have life cycles that include development from
undifferentiated cells

Blood flows under low pressure in a ____ circulatory system, thus fewer vessels are required and the energetic costs are relatively low.

open
closed
neither

The ____ system, part of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system, returns body systems to normal; heart rate and respiration slow and digestion resumes.

sympathetic
parasympathetic

Which of these is a muscular sac where urine collects?

ureter
urinary bladder
kidney
urethra

Coffee and cigarette extract increased the heart rate in our experiment, and ethanol slowed it down.

True
False

B cells are born in the ____ ____. B cells produce antibodies.

vena cava
blood airways
bone marrow

Which vitamin has a deficiency symptom of pellagra?

Niacin
Riboflavin
Thiamine
Tocopherol

____ feedback means that when a deviation from normal conditions is detected, body conditions are altered to bring back to the normal level. ____ feedback means that a deviation from the starting condition can cause an intensified deviation from the starting condition, producing a cascade of changes that increase in magnitude.

Positive, Negative
Negative, Positive
Negative, Negative
Positive, Positive

Which is considered an advantage of having a coelom?

Internal organs can be held in place and protected
better
Further specialization and complexity of organs is
possible
Hydrostatic skeleton is possible
Allows the animal to digest lipids and phospholipids
All of the above
All of the above except D

There are two types of hormones, steroids and peptides. Which is true about peptides?

They activate existing enzymes.
They are usually proteins
They are polar.
All of the above
B and C

In a(n) ____ circulatory system blood remains within the vessels that exchange materials with the fluid surrounding the body's tissues.

open
closed
neither

Which kind of tissue consists of cells that contract when electrically stimulated? (Their primary function is allowing movement)

muscle
connective
epithelial
nervous

The hypothalamus produces ____, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to release FSH and LH into the bloodstream.

bile
adrenaline
gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
ovaries

The ____ is responsible for homeostatic control of most organs.

thalamus
pons
hypothalamus
medulla oblongata

Which of these is NOT matched correctly?

External Carotid Artery; supplies most tissues of the
head except brain and orbit.
Aorta; carries oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Renal Artery; delivers blood to kidneys.
Abdominal Artery; delivers blood to inner thigh and
knee.
Pulmonary Artery; carries deoxygenated blood from
heart to lungs.

In a(n) ____ circulatory system the heart pumps fluid through short, open ended vessels which lead to open spaces in the body cavity, where the fluid can exchange materials with the body's cells. The fluid then enters other vessels leading back to the heart.

animal
plant
open
closed

Which classifications of organisms have bilateral symmetry?

chordates
cnidarians
annelids
A & C
All of the above

Sensory cells can provide information that is transmitted via the nervous system, and responses to that information are also initiated via the nervous system and carried out by the musculoskeletal system.

True
False

Which of these is NOT true, regarding digestive systems?

An incomplete digestive system has only one
opening, a complete digestive system has two.
Food passes in only one direction in both an
incomplete and a complete system.
Complete digestive systems can digest, absorb
nutrients, and eliminate wastes in a more efficient
way.
Humans have complete systems.
All of the above are true.

In the ____ pathway, viral DNA replicates along with the cell, but viruses are't immediately produced. An environmental change may trigger a ____ virus to switch to the lytic pathway.

lysogenic
neuron
endocrine
bacterial

The thin filaments in muscle are ____ and the thick filaments are ____.

myosin; actin
actin; myosin
myofibril; actin
sacromeres; myosin

The ____ nervous system (part of the motor pathway) transmits impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands, enabling internal organs to function without conscious awareness.

central
somatic (voluntary)
autonomic (involuntary)
sympathetic

Which type of reproduction contains genetic information from only one parent, creating offspring identical to the parent and one another? They benefit in environments that do not change. (one word)

Which of these secretes insulin and glucagon?

liver
pancreas
stomach
testes

Which neurons conduct their message from the central nervous system toward a muscle of gland?

Interneurons
Motor neurons
Sensory Neurons

Which of these correctly describes a dendrite?

Also called the nerve fiber, is typically a single long extension
of the cell body. It is finely branched at its tip and each tiny
terminal extension communicates with anther cell at a synapse.
Junction at which a neuron communicates with another cell.
The enlarged rounded part of a neuron that contains the
nucleus, mitochondria that supply ATP, ribosomes that
manufacture proteins, and other organelles.
Short, branched extensions that transmit information toward
the cell body.

Development of a head structure, containing specialized sensory and feeding appendages is called ____ .

extracomplex growth
epithelial growth
segmentation
cephalization

Which of these produces testosterone in males?

testes
ovaries (LOL)
adrenal gland
pituitary glands

Which neurons bring information from the body's organs to the central nervous system and respond to light pressure, heat, touch, pain , and chemicals detected as odors or tastes?

Interneurons
Motor neurons
Sensory neurons

In the ____ pathway, the host cell bursts when new particles assemble and leave the cell. These viruses infect other cells, repeating the process.

lysogenic
lytic
neuron
endocrine
bacterial

____ is the maintenance of internal conditions by means of self-regulating mechanisms.

There are two types of hormones, steroids and peptides. Which is true about steroids?

They are polar.
They direct the synthesis of new proteins.
They are derived from cholesterol.
All of the above.
B and C

____ tissues coat the body's internal and external surfaces with one or more layers of tightly packed cells. They cover organs and line the inside of hollow organs and body cavities. Functions of these tissues includes protection, nutrient absorption along the intestinal tract, and gas diffusion in the lungs.

muscle
connective
epithelial
nervous

Blood flows at a high pressure in ____ circulatory systems. Nutrient delivery and waste removal occur more rapidly, and these systems are more efficient overall.

open
closed
neither

The ____ is a result of the imbalance of ions on both sides of the neuron plasma membrane. (an abundance of Na+ ions on the outside of the membrane being more positively charges than the inside of the neuron.

action potential
polarity potential
resting potential

Arrange the five stages of viral replication in order.
1. Viral nucleic acid is released inside of the host cell. (Penetration)
2. New viruses leave the host cell (Release)
3. New viruses are assembled from newly synthesized coat proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids. (Assembly)
4. Host cell manufactures multiple copies of the viral genome. (Synthesis)
5. A virus is attached to a host cell by adhering to a receptor molecule on the cells surface. (Attachment)

1, 2, 3, 4, 5
5, 3, 2, 4, 1
5, 1, 4, 3, 2
5, 1, 3, 2, 4

Which organ is NOT matched correctly with its role? (Hint; One of these is matched up with the small intestine's role)

Liver; produces bile
Stomach; mixes food, enzymatic digestion of proteins
Pancreas; Final enzymatic breakdown of food
molecules
Gallbladder; stores bile
Large Intestine; absorbs water and minerals to form
feces

The central nervous system consists of the ____ and the ____.

nerves; nerve cells
spinal cord; brain
spinal cord; ribs

Which of the following is a characteristic of all sponges?

parazoa (no true tissues)
radial symmetry
bilateral symmetry
eumetazoa (true tissues)

When blood glucose concentrations are too low, ____ is secreted by alpha cells of the pancreas to increase blood pressure.

glucagon
adrenaline
insulin
testosterone

In order to control the concentrations of ions in their body fluids , organisms must ____. It requires cells to move ions against the concentration gradient via active transport.

filtrate
passive transport
osmoregulate

Most of the interaction of the endocrine system with any other organ system are based on negative feedback.

True
False

A reflex arc links a sensory receptor to an effector. Arrange these in the correct order.
1. Cell body of sensory synapses on the cell body of a motor neuron.
2. Sensory neurons are excited.
3. Effector muscle is stimulated to contract.
4. Painful response in skin is stimulated.

4,1,2,3
4,2,3,1
4,2,1,3
1,2,3,4

Arrange the steps of hormone response in the correct order.
1. An intermediate step that essentially activates a set of intermediary complexes. (Signal transduction)
2. The hormone is recognized by the cell when it binds to a particular protein within the cell (steroid) or within the plasma membrane (peptide). (Signal reception)
3. When a cell begins doing the task directed by the hormone. (Induction)

1,2,3
2,1,3
3,2,1
2,3,1

Which is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?

Collecting fluid and removing bacteria, debris, and
cancer cells before returning the liquid to the blood.
Sends signals to the brain via neurons.
Absorbing digestive fats and transporting them to the
circulatory system.
Protecting the body from disease via immunity.

A(n) ____ is one of the many repeated units in a myofibril of a muscle cell.

sacromere
myosin
actin

The ____ nervous system carries signals to skeletal muscles, such as those that enable you to ride a bike, shake hands, or talk.

parasympathetic
somatic (voluntary)
autonomic (involuntary)
sympathetic

Arrange these in the correct order.
1. Water and dissolved substances are filtered out of the blood at the glomerular capsule. (Filtration)
2. Useful materials such as salts, water, and glucose return form the nephron to the blood. (Reabsorption)
3. Toxic substances, drug residues, hydrogen ions, and surplus ions are secreted into the nephron to be eliminated in urine. (Secretion)

1,2,3
2,3,1
1.3.2
3,2,1

Which of these is correct regarding the role of the kidney?

The kidney receives blood via a renal artery, which branches
into many arteries and arterioles.
An arteriole delivers blood to a glomerulus, a tuft of capillaries
where blood is filtered into a nephron.
The capillaries of the glomerulus then lead into another
arteriole, which leads to the peritubular capillaries, which snake
around part of each nephron.
The blood vessels empty into a venule, which joins the renal
vein carrying cleansed blood out of the kidney and into the
heart.
All are true

Which of these is true? 1. Negative feedback maintains homeostasis. 2. Positive feedback maintains homeostasis.

1 is true
2 is true
both are true

Which of these correctly describes an axon?

Also called the nerve fiber, is typically a single long extension
of the cell body. It is finely branched at its tip and each tiny
terminal extension communicates with anther cell at a synapse.
Junction at which a neuron communicates with another cell.
The enlarged rounded part of a neuron that contains the
nucleus, mitochondria that supply ATP, ribosomes that
manufacture proteins, and other organelles.
Short, branched extensions that transmit information toward
the cell body.

Aside from the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein, veins ALWAYS carry blood ____ the heart and arteries ALWAYS carry blood ____ the heart.

away from; to
to; away from

The ____ gives rise to the skin and nervous system tissue

endoderm
ectoderm
mesoderm
coelom

Which of these describes cardiac muscle?

Composition: Elongated cells, each containing many nuclei;
striated.
Functions: Moves to the nones of skeleton; voluntary.
Location: Attached to bone.
Composition: Short, branched cells, each containing one
nucleus; striated.
Composition: Short, branched cells, each containing one
nucleus; striated.
Functions: Contraction of atria and ventricles in heart;
involuntary.
Location: Walls of heart
Composition: Spindle-shaped cells, each containing one
nucleus.
Functions: Slow, involuntary movements.
Location: Digestive tract; arteries.

The ____ is a body cavity that is lined (by tissue derived from the mesoderm).

Molecules of water pass across the intestinal epithelium via ____.

active transport
passive transport
osmosis
diffusion

The small forebrain structure beneath the thalamus that controls homeostasis and links the nervous and endocrine systems is the ____.

medulla oblongata
hypothalamus
pons
cerebellum

The ____ system exerts a profound influence on all digestive processes by sending signals to different organs, the ____ system regulates the digestive system by secreting hormones.

nervous; sensory
musculoskeletal; nervous
sensory; nervous
nervous; endocrine

Which of these describes an endoskeleton?

Fluid constrained within a layer of flexible tissue. (Ex. worm,
jellyfish)
Skeleton on the outside of an animal. Internal muscles pull
against the skeleton, enabling the animal to move. Most consist
of chitin. (Ex. crabs)
Skeleton on the inside of an animal. Vertebrate animals have
these, made of cartilage or bone.

____ tissue conveys information rapidly within an animals body, allowing communication among cells.

muscle
connective
epithelial
nervous

Which of these correctly describes a cell body?

Also called the nerve fiber, is typically a single long extension
of the cell body. It is finely branched at its tip and each tiny
terminal extension communicates with anther cell at a synapse.
Junction at which a neuron communicates with another cell.
The enlarged rounded part of a neuron that contains the
nucleus, mitochondria that supply ATP, ribosomes that
manufacture proteins, and other organelles.
Short, branched extensions that transmit information toward
the cell body.

Which of these describe an exoskeleton?

Fluid constrained within a layer of flexible tissue. (Ex. worm,
jellyfish)
Skeleton on the outside of an animal. Internal muscles pull
against the skeleton, enabling the animal to move. Most consist
of chitin. (Ex. crabs)
Skeleton on the inside of an animal. Vertebrate animals have
these, made of cartilage or bone.

____ is NOT an enzyme; it is basically a natural detergent that allows an enzyme (lipase) to function more efficiently. ____ helps break down fats. (Both blanks are the same, only enter it once)

Which of these transport urine from the kidney to the bladder?

ureter
urethra
pancreas

____ is an organismic process, ____ is a cellular process.

Diffusion; osmosis
Aerobic respiration; digestion
Active transport; digestion
Breathing; aerobic respiration

The thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebrum reside in the ____.

hindbrain
midbrain
forebrain

Which of these produces HORMONES THAT CONTROL the release of testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone?

pancreas
adrenal gland
testes
ovaries
pituitary gland

____ (specific) immunity protects us against a specific cell and ____ (non-specific) immunity provides general protection against all cells.

Adaptive; innate
Innate; adaptive

Which of these removes wastes and water from the blood, balances chemicals in the body, releases hormones, controls blood pressure, produces blood cells, and produces Vitamin D?

ureter
urinary bladder
kidney
pancreas

Which of these describes smooth muscle?

Composition: Elongated cells, each containing many nuclei;
striated.
Functions: Moves to the nones of skeleton; voluntary.
Location: Attached to bone.
Composition: Short, branched cells, each containing one
nucleus; striated.
Functions: Contraction of atria and ventricles in heart;
involuntary.
Location: Walls of heart
Composition: Spindle-shaped cells, each containing one
nucleus.
Functions: Slow, involuntary movements.
Location: Digestive tract; arteries.

The kidney is essentially a filtration system.

True
False