Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes

Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes

Exam Study Guide Interior Earth Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Volcanoes

published on November 08, 2012313 responses 2 5.0★ / 5

Tsunami

A downward fold in rock formed by compression in the Earth's surface
A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

Magma Chamber

The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects
A pocket where igneous rocks are collected from previous eruptions
A pocket where extinct rocks are collected from previous eruptions

Inner Core

A dense cube of liquid iron and nickel in the outermost part of the Earth
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the Earth
A rock sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the Earth

Vent

A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth's surface
A pocket where igneous rocks are collected from previous eruptions
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano

Richter Scale

The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
A scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular type of mechanical seismograph
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced

Divergent Boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other in one direction
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in the opposite directions
A plate boundary where two plates move away from eachother

Magnitude

The measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced

Aftershock

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity
An earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor

Seismic Waves

A pool formed by groundwater that has risen to the surface
A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
A pool formed by volcanic eruptions that has risen to the epicenter of the eruption

Mercalli Scale

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity
A scale that rates volcanoes according to their magma percent
A scale that measures eruptions destruction and fault line

Shield Volcano

A tall cone shaped volcano in which layers of lava layer over each other with ash and over volcanic materials
A wide gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava formed by quiet eruptions
A steep cone shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash

Transform Boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other in one direction
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in the opposite directions
A plate boundary where two plates move away from eachother

Plate

A section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of crust
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
A molten mixture of rock forming substance

Subduction

The process by which ore is melted to separate the metal plates
A vibration that travels through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
A process when ocean crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary

Faults

A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core

Convection

The transfer of frigidness by movement in the crust
The disposing of heat by immobility in the mantle
The transfer of heat by movement in the mantle

Surface Waves

A wave that moves up and down or side to side
A wave that compresses and expands the ground
A wave that forms when P and S waves reach the Earth's surface

Pangaea

The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago
An igneous rock that consists of large crystals
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean

Focus

A point above Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes a hurricane
A point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under faults and causes a reverse fault
A point beneath Earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake

Volcano

A weak spot in the crust where magma has come to the surface
A narrow slab of mineral that is sharply different from the surrounding rock
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano

Mesosphere

A layer above the stratosphere
A layer between the stratosphere and lithosphere
A layer below the stratosphere

Laurasia

Area of Pangaea in the Northern Hemisphere
Area of Pangaea in the Souththern Hemisphere
Area of Africa in the Northern Hemisphere

Composite Volcano (Stratovolcano)

A tall cone shaped volcano in which layers of lava layer over each other with ash and over volcanic materials
A wide gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava formed by quiet eruptions
A steep cone shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic material around the opening

Mid-Ocean Ridge

A scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
The measurement of an earthquake's strength and movement

Folds

A bend in rock that forms where part of Earth's crust is compressed
A break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
The layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core

Asthenosphere

A liquid layer of the mantle on which the asthenosphere floats
A rock layer of the mantle on which the mesosphere floats
A soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

Seismograph

A factor that can change in an experiment
A device that records ground movement caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
A device that records underwater movement caused by folds in the Mantle

Convection Current

The hypothesis that the continents slowly move over the years
The shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
Movement of fluid caused by different temperatures that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another

P Waves

A wave that moves up and down or side to side
A wave that compresses and expands the ground
A wave that forms when P and S waves reach the Earth's surface

Magma

The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle (inside)
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
Movement of fluid caused by different temperatures that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another

Pipe

A deposit of hardened magma in the long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber
The opening where molten rock and bombs fly out of
A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth's surface

Epicenter

The point on Earth's surface directly below an earthquake's focus
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's fault line
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus

S Waves

A wave that moves up and down or side to side
A wave that compresses and expands the ground
A wave that forms when P and S waves reach the Earth's surface

Gondwanaland

A place
Another place
The second section of Pangaea after it broke (South)

Convergent Boundary

A plate boundary where two plates move toward each other in one direction
A plate boundary where two plates move past each other in the opposite directions
A plate boundary where two plates move away from eachother

Outer Core

A layer of molten rock iron and nickel surround the inner core
A layer of molten rock iron and nickel surround the mantle
A layer of molten rock iron and nickel surround the asthenosphere

Anticline

An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
Stress that stretches rocks

Cinder Cone Volcano

A tall cone shaped volcano in which layers of lava layer over each other with ash and over volcanic materials
A wide gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava formed by quiet eruptions
A steep cone shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic material around the opening

Syncline

An upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust
A downward fold in rock formed by compression in Earth's crust
Stress that compresses rocks

Lava

The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle (inside)
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
Liquid magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when lava hardens (outside)

Lithosphere

A layer of the uppermost part of the mantle and crust
A layer of the middle part of the mantle and crust
A layer of the lowest part of the mantle and crust
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