Pathophysiology practice test (15)

Pathophysiology practice test (15)

<<<<<<<< Heart Failure>>>>>>>>>> ............... Multiple Choice.................

published on June 21, 201267 responses 0

the pathogenesis of heart failure is?

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decreased energy produced
less calcium influx from extracellular
decreased calcium uptake by SR
decreased calcium released by SR

orthopnea present in left heart failure mainly due to in recumbent position?

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more venous blood return to heart?
more interstitial fluid of lower extremity reabsorbed to
capillary
diaphragm moves towards up
increased activity of sympathetic nerves

which is the pathogeneses of dysfunction of excitation contraction coupling?

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disorder of Ca channel of myocardial membraine
hyperkalemia
acidosis
decreased Ca released by SR

which is related to cardiac edema?

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decreased GFR ( glomerular filtration rate)
increased secretion of aldosterone
increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
increased capillary blood pressure

mechanism of orthopnea include?

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tissue fluid of lower extremity return to heart in the
recumbent position
the position of diaphragm moves toward up in the
recumbent position
pulmonary vein dilation
increased pulmonary vascular permeability

pathogenesis of heart failure result from depressed contractility may be?

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myocardium injured due to infarction or severe
inflammation
inadequate energy produced by myocardium
disorder of energy utilization of myocardium
dysfunction of excitation contraction coupling

the mechanism of the blood pressure may keep normal in chronic heart failure is?

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sympathetic nervous system is stimulated and
contraction of arteriole
increased heart rate
blood volume increase
blood flow slowly

venous hypertension in chronic heart failure may due to?

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increased activity of sympathetic nerves
increased blood volume
increased VEDP
decreased water excretory by kidney

which may lead to high output heart failure?

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hypertension
myocarditis
severe anemia
hyperthyroidism

the pathogenesis of disorder of calcium transport may be?

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reduced uptake by SR ( sarcoplasmic reticulum)
reduced influx of extracellular calcium
acidosis
reduced density of β-receptor in hypertrophy
myocardium

the major mechanisms of cardiac edema is?

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retention of water and sodium
increased hydrostatic pressure of capillaries
obstruction of lymphatic flow
increased capillary permeability

which manifestation is possible in right heart failure?

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edema of lower limb
engorgement of neck vein
orthopnea
loss of appetite

the basic causes of heart failure are?

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lesion of the myocardium
overload of myocardium for a long time
infection
arrhythemia

eccentric hypertrophy?

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is due to volume overload
accompany cardiac chamber dilation
accompany increased of the sarcomeres in parallel
accompany increased length of the myocardial cell

acute heart failure may result in?

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blood pressure decrease
cardiogenic shock
blood volume increased
myocardium hypertrophy

the pathogenesis of heart failure result from ischemic heart disease?

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ventricular remodeling
decreased calcium uptake and released by SR
compliance decreased
decreased energy produced

the patient with low output heart failure may present?

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CO< 2.5L/min
increased of heart rate
decreased of VEDV
decreased of ejection fraction

the pathogenesis of diastolic dysfunction in heart failure is?

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delayed calcium outward movement from cytoplasm to
outside of cell
less calcium uptake by SR
delyed breakdown of the formed actin myosin cross
bridege
decreased compliance of the ventricle

the manifestations of right heart failure include?

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hepatomegaly
edema of lower extremity
ascites
engorgement of jugular vein

the alterations in low output heart failure include?

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decreased cardiac output
decreased ejection fraction
decreased heart rate
decreased stroke volume