pathophysiology practice test (6)

pathophysiology practice test (6)

water and electrolytes disturbances >>>>>>>>>> multiple choices <<<<<<<

published on May 07, 201242 responses 0

the effects of hypotonic dehydration on body are?

Select the three correct answers
decreased plasma osmolality
shock is common
movement of fluid from ECF to ICF
increased secretion of ADH

the characteristics of hypotonic dehydration are?

Select the three correct answers
thirst is not apparent in the early
stage
blood pressure is stable
serum sodium concentration is less
than 130mmol/L
plasma osmolality is less than
280mOsm/L

serum levels of K+ are mainly regulated by?

Select the two correct answers
daily dietary intake
ADH
renal mechanisms which control
urinary output
redistribution between ICF and ECF

what are the most dangerous consequences of hyperkalemia?

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metabolic acidosis
ventricular fibrillation
paralysis of skeletal muscle
cardiac arrest

what are the most common water electrolyte disturbances in excessive sweating?

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hypotonic dehydration
isotonic dehydration
hypokalemia
hypertonic dehydration

the effects of primary hyperkalemia on acid-base balance are?

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ECF acidosis
ECF alkalosis
ICF acidosis
ICF alkalosis

the toxic effects of severe hyperkalemia on myocardium are?

Select the four correct answers
decreased excitability
decreased autorhythmicity
decreased conductivity
arrhythmia

the consequences of hyperkalemia are?

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decreased neuromuscular excitability
with secere hyperkalemia
metabolic acidosis
decreased cardiac conductivity
cardiac arrest may occur

the factors which can result in retention of sodium and water include?

Select the two correct answers
decreased GFR
decreased plasma colloid osmotic
pressure
increased interstitial colloid
osmotic pressure
increased tubular reabsorption

two main stimuli for thirst are?

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increase in ECF osmolarity
decrease in effective blood volume
increase in ICF volume
decrease in ICF osmolarity

the characteristics of hypotonic dehydration are?

Select the three correct answers
the sodium loss in excess of water
loss
increased plasma osmotic pressure
severe reduced ECF volume
thirst is not an early symptom

the effects of acute hypokalemia on neuromuscular tissue are?

Select the four correct answers
muscle weakness
myoparalysis
decreased cell excitability
hyperpolarization block

the factors which can promote reabsorption of sodium and water in distal convoluted tubule and collecting tube include?

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increased production of ALD
decreased GFR
increased production of ADH
decreased ANP

what are the mechanisms of promoting reabsorption of sodium and water while glomerular filtration fraction inscrease?

Select the two correct answers
increased production of ALD
decreased production of natriuretic
hormone
decreased hydrostatic pressure in the
capillaries around proximal tubules
increased colloid osmotic pressure
in the capillaries around proximal
tubules

the effects of hypokalemia on myocardium are?

Select the three correct answers
increased excitability
increased autorhythmicity
decreased excitability
decreased conductivity

the characteristics of water intoxication are?

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increased ECF volume
normal ECF volume
decreased ECF volume
increased ICF volume

the clinical manifestations in late stage of hypertonic dehydration are?

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thirst
shock
increased body temperature
decreased urine volume

the effects of acute mild hyperkalemia on neuromuscular tissure are?

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paraesthesia of extremities
myoparalysis
weakness of muscles
mild trembling of muscles

the clinical manifestations in earlier stage of hypertonic dehydration are?

Select the three correct answers
thirst
hypotension
urine specific gravity is beyond
1.020
decreased urine volume