Sociology Final Quiz

Sociology Final Quiz

Concentrates on Family, Eduction, Religion, Government, Gender, and Social Change.

published on December 15, 201320 responses 0

Alice, age seven, lives at home with her parents, her grandmother, and her aunt. Alice's family is an example of a(n) ____.

nuclear family
patrilineal family
extended family
polygynous family

The primary accomplishment of the first wave of the women's movement was ____.

making women citizens
gaining the right to an abortion
earning the right to nondiscrimination in the workplace
winning the right to vote

What do groups such as the berdaches, hijras, and xanith reveal about the nature of sex and gender?

All societies share the same dimorphic, male-female model of sex.
The number of sex and gender categories varies across cultures.
Socialization plays a significant role in modern societies, but a more limited role in traditional societies.
Sex categories vary across cultures, but expressions of gender are universal.

Karl Marx held that leaders of social movements must help workers overcome feelings of ____.

class consciousness
false consciousness
socialist consciousness
surplus value

Of the world religions, the one with the most followers is ____.

Buddhism
Islam
Judaism
Christianity

Nineteenth-century theories of social change reflect the pioneering work in biological evolution done by ____.

Albert Einstein
Harriet Martineau
James Audubon
Charles Darwin

Which definition of the family focuses on the importance of blood and law?

functionalist
matrilineal
substantive
extended

You are a student and do not own a car. All your close friends who are attending your college or university have vehicles of their own. You feel downtrodden and dissatisfied. You are experiencing ____.

relative deprivation
resource mobilization
false consciousness
depression

Which did William Ogburn use to describe the period of maladjustment during which the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions?

economic shift
political turmoil
social change
culture lag

Religious rituals are ____.

statements to which members of a particular religion adhere
the feelings or perceptions of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as divine being
the religious structures through which faith communities organize themselves
practices required or expected of members of a faith

Overall, when comparing full-time, year-round workers, how much do women earn compared to every dollar men earn?

42 cents
63 cents
77 cents
92 cents

Companies that are headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world are known as ____.

global corporations
multinational corporations
maquiladoras
international agencies

Immanuel Wallerstein's world systems analysis focuses on ____.

the unequal access to and control of resources between core and periphery nations
the natural evolutionary development of all societies toward the modern ideal
the rise of multinational corporations
the global pattern of inequality faced by women

In what type of societies do women dominate in family decision making?

polygyny
egalitarian
patriarchy
matriarchy

In which form of marriage may a person have several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time?

serial monogamy
monogamy
polygamy
polyandry

The principle that prohibits sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives is known as ____.

monogamy
the incest taboo
polygamy
endogamy

Within a capitalist economy, what does does laissez-faire mean?

The means of production and distribution in a society are collectively held.
People should compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy.
A single business firm controls the market.
Society depends on mechanization to produce its goods

According to the model proposed by C. Wright Mills, in whose hands does power resist?

the people
the power elite
the aristocracy
representative democracy

One of the ways education contributes to social order is by providing an environment within which we can challenge existing ideas and experiment with new norms and values. This is known as ____.

transmitting culture
promoting social integration
training and social control
cultural innovation

According to the definition, what is social change?

tumultuous, revolutionary alterations that lead to changes in leadership
a significant alternation over time in behavior patterns and culture
regular alterations in a consistent social frame of reference
subtle alterations in any social system

In what year did the United Nations adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

1865
1919
1948
1993

Organized collective activities that promote autonomy and self-determination, as well as improvements in the quality of life, are referred to as ____/

new social movements
social revolutions
resource mobilizations
crazes

Sociologist Max Weber pointed out that the followers of John Calvin emphasized a disciplined work ethic, worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life. Collectively, this point of view has been referred to as ____.

capitalism
the Protestant ethic
the sacred
the profane

Overall, the divorce rate in the United States in the past 30 years ____.

has risen dramatically
has risen slowly but steadily
has declined after having risen significantly in the 1960s and 1970s
shows no clear pattern

What is the expression used when claiming that gender for men is not narrowly limited to traditional conceptions of masculinity?

intersexual
gender modification
sex
multiple masculinities

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis have argues that capitalism requires a skilled, disciplined labor force and that the educational system of the United States is structured with that objective in mind. Citing numerous studies, they offer support for what they call ____.

tracking
credentialism
the correspondence principle
the teacher-expectancy effect

The use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice evident in a secular society is referred to as ____.

creationism
ritualism
religious experience
liberation theology

When it comes to voter turnout, where does the United States rank compared to other nations?

the first, with the highest level of turnout
in the top 10 internationally
in about the top third of all nations
in the bottom half of all nations

Which of the following is not part of the classification system of authority developed by Max Weber?

traditional authority
pluralist authority
legal-rational authority
charismatic authority

Karuna Chanana Ahmed, a sociologist from India who has studies developing nations, calls which group the most exploited of oppressed people?

children
women
the elderly
the poor

Fifty years ago, a high school diploma was often enough to get a good job. Today it typically takes a college degree or more. This change reflects the process of ____.

tracking
credentialism
the hidden curriculum
the correspondence principle

When college students conducted an experiment in which they violated expected gender norms, they demonstrated the power of ____.

gender-role socialization
biological determinism
instrumental leadership
the glass ceiling

Which of the terms refers to the foreign-owned factories established just across the border in Mexico, where the companies that own them don't have to pay taxed or high wages, or provide insurance or benefits for their workers?

maquiladoras
hombres
mujeras
remesas

How much of total global wealth do the bottom 50 percent of the world's population own?

1 percent
6 percent
23 percent
47 percent

Which system of descent is followed in the United States?

matrilineal
patrilineal
bilateral
unilateral

The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people for an extended period of time is referred to as ____.

globalization
government-imposed stratification
colonialism
dependency

Which of the following terms best describes the threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims?

Politics
power
terrorism
authority

What term does geneticist Anne Fausto-Sterling use to describe those who have biological characteristics typically associated with both males and females?

sex
gender
intersexual
gender displays

What term describes the categories of people to whom we are sexually attracted?

heteronormativity
sexual orientation
sexuality
sexual displays

Approximately how much global household wealth is owned by households in North America?

about one-tenth
about one-quarter
about one-third
about one-half

Which norm requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually one's own family or certain kinfolk?

exogamy
endogamy
matriarchy
patriarchy

The approach to defining religion that emphasizes the significance of the sacred, most often super-natural, realm is known as the ____.

functionalist approach
conflict approach
substantive approach
ecclesiae approach

Which is primarily characterized by the transfers of moneys, goods, and services which are not reported to the government?

globalization
the mixed economy
laissez-faire economy
the informal economy

The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants is called ____.

deindustrialization
downsizing
postindustrialization
gentrification

What term do sociologist use to describe to biological differences between males and females?

gender
sexism
anatomy
sex

According to early sociologists Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, which type of leader bears responsibility for completion of tasks, focuses on more-distant goals, and manages the external relationship between the family and other social institutions?

expressive
charismatic
instrumental
traditional

Horace Mann, often called the "father of public education," refers to education as ____.

the great equalizer
the opiate of the masses
an instrument for social control
an opportunity engine

Which of these terms is used by contemporary social scientists to describe the far-reaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward those characteristic of post-Industrial Revolution societies?

dependency
globalization
industrialization
modernization

The marriage of a woman to more than one man at the same time is referred to as

polygyny
monogamy
serial monogamy
polyandry

According to Max Weber, what is the definition of power?

The recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving societies goals.
The combination of strength and stamina.
The mechanical and electrical energy that provided the foundation for the Industrial Revolution.
The ability to exercise one's will over others, even if they resist.

What is the term used to describe transfer of work to foreign contractors?

Exploitation
Offshoring
Alienation
Downsizing

What is the projected cost of raising a child born in 2010 unit she or he is 18 years old?

$107,011
$286,860
$408,425
$646,464

According to Talcott Parson's equilibrium model, during which process do social institutions become more specialized in their purposes?

differentiation
adaptive upgrading
inclusion
value generalization

The college student subculture that focuses on having fun and socializing and doesn't take its studies too seriously is the ____.

collegiate subculture
academic subculture
vocational subculture
nonconformist subculture

The expression "second shift" refers to ____

doing the emotional work of maintaining family relationships.
maintaining the household including housework in addition to a job outside of the home.
having a work shift ranging approximately between 4:00 P.M. and midnight.
doing paid labor at the workplace.

Globally, approximately how many people subsist on less than $1.25 per day?

500 million
1.4 billion
3.2 billion
5 billion

The One Laptop per Child campaign was designed to overcome the problem of ____.

relative deprivation
social change
the digital divide
vested interests

Recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act and taking responsibility for the effects our actions have on others is known as ____.

resource mobilization
false consciousness
public sociology
personal sociology

It takes more than desire to start a social movement; it helps to have money, political influence, access to the media, and workers. The ways in which a social movement uses such things are referred to collectively as ____.

relative depression
false consciousness
resource mobilization
economic independence

In which type of government do only a few individuals rule?

a monarchy
a democracy
a dictatorship
an oligarchy