Sociology Final Quiz Concentrates on Family, Eduction, Religion, Government, Gender, and Social Change. joaks01 published on December 15, 20134 responses 0 Questions in vertical order The marriage of a woman to more than one man at the same time is referred to as polygyny monogamy serial monogamy polyandry What is the term used to describe transfer of work to foreign contractors? Exploitation Offshoring Alienation Downsizing According to Talcott Parson's equilibrium model, during which process do social institutions become more specialized in their purposes? differentiation adaptive upgrading inclusion value generalization Overall, when comparing full-time, year-round workers, how much do women earn compared to every dollar men earn? 42 cents 63 cents 77 cents 92 cents In which form of marriage may a person have several spouses in his or her lifetime but only one spouse at a time? serial monogamy monogamy polygamy polyandry In which type of government do only a few individuals rule? a monarchy a democracy a dictatorship an oligarchy According to early sociologists Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, which type of leader bears responsibility for completion of tasks, focuses on more-distant goals, and manages the external relationship between the family and other social institutions? expressive charismatic instrumental traditional What do groups such as the berdaches, hijras, and xanith reveal about the nature of sex and gender? All societies share the same dimorphic, male-female model of sex. The number of sex and gender categories varies across cultures. Socialization plays a significant role in modern societies, but a more limited role in traditional societies. Sex categories vary across cultures, but expressions of gender are universal. Horace Mann, often called the "father of public education," refers to education as ____. the great equalizer the opiate of the masses an instrument for social control an opportunity engine Which system of descent is followed in the United States? matrilineal patrilineal bilateral unilateral Companies that are headquartered in one country but do business throughout the world are known as ____. global corporations multinational corporations maquiladoras international agencies The use of a church, primarily Roman Catholic, in a political effort to eliminate poverty, discrimination, and other forms of injustice evident in a secular society is referred to as ____. creationism ritualism religious experience liberation theology Sociologist Max Weber pointed out that the followers of John Calvin emphasized a disciplined work ethic, worldly concerns, and a rational orientation to life. Collectively, this point of view has been referred to as ____. capitalism the Protestant ethic the sacred the profane The One Laptop per Child campaign was designed to overcome the problem of ____. relative deprivation social change the digital divide vested interests Immanuel Wallerstein's world systems analysis focuses on ____. the unequal access to and control of resources between core and periphery nations the natural evolutionary development of all societies toward the modern ideal the rise of multinational corporations the global pattern of inequality faced by women Globally, approximately how many people subsist on less than $1.25 per day? 500 million 1.4 billion 3.2 billion 5 billion When it comes to voter turnout, where does the United States rank compared to other nations? the first, with the highest level of turnout in the top 10 internationally in about the top third of all nations in the bottom half of all nations The expression "second shift" refers to ____ doing the emotional work of maintaining family relationships. maintaining the household including housework in addition to a job outside of the home. having a work shift ranging approximately between 4:00 P.M. and midnight. doing paid labor at the workplace. According to the model proposed by C. Wright Mills, in whose hands does power resist? the people the power elite the aristocracy representative democracy One of the ways education contributes to social order is by providing an environment within which we can challenge existing ideas and experiment with new norms and values. This is known as ____. transmitting culture promoting social integration training and social control cultural innovation Fifty years ago, a high school diploma was often enough to get a good job. Today it typically takes a college degree or more. This change reflects the process of ____. tracking credentialism the hidden curriculum the correspondence principle In what year did the United Nations adopt the Universal Declaration of Human Rights? 1865 1919 1948 1993 Karuna Chanana Ahmed, a sociologist from India who has studies developing nations, calls which group the most exploited of oppressed people? children women the elderly the poor Which of the following is not part of the classification system of authority developed by Max Weber? traditional authority pluralist authority legal-rational authority charismatic authority You are a student and do not own a car. All your close friends who are attending your college or university have vehicles of their own. You feel downtrodden and dissatisfied. You are experiencing ____. relative deprivation resource mobilization false consciousness depression Alice, age seven, lives at home with her parents, her grandmother, and her aunt. Alice's family is an example of a(n) ____. nuclear family patrilineal family extended family polygynous family Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis have argues that capitalism requires a skilled, disciplined labor force and that the educational system of the United States is structured with that objective in mind. Citing numerous studies, they offer support for what they call ____. tracking credentialism the correspondence principle the teacher-expectancy effect It takes more than desire to start a social movement; it helps to have money, political influence, access to the media, and workers. The ways in which a social movement uses such things are referred to collectively as ____. relative depression false consciousness resource mobilization economic independence The approach to defining religion that emphasizes the significance of the sacred, most often super-natural, realm is known as the ____. functionalist approach conflict approach substantive approach ecclesiae approach The principle that prohibits sexual relationships between certain culturally specified relatives is known as ____. monogamy the incest taboo polygamy endogamy Within a capitalist economy, what does does laissez-faire mean? The means of production and distribution in a society are collectively held. People should compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy. A single business firm controls the market. Society depends on mechanization to produce its goods Approximately how much global household wealth is owned by households in North America? about one-tenth about one-quarter about one-third about one-half What term does geneticist Anne Fausto-Sterling use to describe those who have biological characteristics typically associated with both males and females? sex gender intersexual gender displays Recognizing the impact our individual position has on who we are and how we think and act and taking responsibility for the effects our actions have on others is known as ____. resource mobilization false consciousness public sociology personal sociology Which definition of the family focuses on the importance of blood and law? functionalist matrilineal substantive extended Organized collective activities that promote autonomy and self-determination, as well as improvements in the quality of life, are referred to as ____/ new social movements social revolutions resource mobilizations crazes Which norm requires mate selection outside certain groups, usually one's own family or certain kinfolk? exogamy endogamy matriarchy patriarchy Which of these terms is used by contemporary social scientists to describe the far-reaching process by which nations pass from traditional forms of social organization toward those characteristic of post-Industrial Revolution societies? dependency globalization industrialization modernization Karl Marx held that leaders of social movements must help workers overcome feelings of ____. class consciousness false consciousness socialist consciousness surplus value The maintenance of political, social, economic, and cultural domination over a people for an extended period of time is referred to as ____. globalization government-imposed stratification colonialism dependency Which of the terms refers to the foreign-owned factories established just across the border in Mexico, where the companies that own them don't have to pay taxed or high wages, or provide insurance or benefits for their workers? maquiladoras hombres mujeras remesas Which is primarily characterized by the transfers of moneys, goods, and services which are not reported to the government? globalization the mixed economy laissez-faire economy the informal economy What term describes the categories of people to whom we are sexually attracted? heteronormativity sexual orientation sexuality sexual displays Religious rituals are ____. statements to which members of a particular religion adhere the feelings or perceptions of being in direct contact with the ultimate reality, such as divine being the religious structures through which faith communities organize themselves practices required or expected of members of a faith What is the projected cost of raising a child born in 2010 unit she or he is 18 years old? $107,011 $286,860 $408,425 $646,464 Overall, the divorce rate in the United States in the past 30 years ____. has risen dramatically has risen slowly but steadily has declined after having risen significantly in the 1960s and 1970s shows no clear pattern The college student subculture that focuses on having fun and socializing and doesn't take its studies too seriously is the ____. collegiate subculture academic subculture vocational subculture nonconformist subculture The primary accomplishment of the first wave of the women's movement was ____. making women citizens gaining the right to an abortion earning the right to nondiscrimination in the workplace winning the right to vote What is the expression used when claiming that gender for men is not narrowly limited to traditional conceptions of masculinity? intersexual gender modification sex multiple masculinities According to the definition, what is social change? tumultuous, revolutionary alterations that lead to changes in leadership a significant alternation over time in behavior patterns and culture regular alterations in a consistent social frame of reference subtle alterations in any social system In what type of societies do women dominate in family decision making? polygyny egalitarian patriarchy matriarchy When college students conducted an experiment in which they violated expected gender norms, they demonstrated the power of ____. gender-role socialization biological determinism instrumental leadership the glass ceiling The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity such as factories and plants is called ____. deindustrialization downsizing postindustrialization gentrification Nineteenth-century theories of social change reflect the pioneering work in biological evolution done by ____. Albert Einstein Harriet Martineau James Audubon Charles Darwin Of the world religions, the one with the most followers is ____. Buddhism Islam Judaism Christianity Which of the following terms best describes the threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims? Politics power terrorism authority How much of total global wealth do the bottom 50 percent of the world's population own? 1 percent 6 percent 23 percent 47 percent Which did William Ogburn use to describe the period of maladjustment during which the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions? economic shift political turmoil social change culture lag What term do sociologist use to describe to biological differences between males and females? gender sexism anatomy sex According to Max Weber, what is the definition of power? The recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving societies goals. The combination of strength and stamina. The mechanical and electrical energy that provided the foundation for the Industrial Revolution. The ability to exercise one's will over others, even if they resist.