Elimination (1)

Elimination (1)

Part III of the Pharmacology 3 Test notes. This material is the final piece of infomation for the next test that we need to review before Thursday.

published on November 11, 20132 responses 0

Which anti-emetic dopamine antagonists GI tract disorder drug increases GI motility and has a neurological side effect that mimics parkinson's disease (i.e. shaking)

Prochlorperzine (Compazine)
Metaclopramide (Reglan)
Promethazine (Phenergan)

What does the PSA indicate in a patient if it is elevated?

urinary retention
UTI
Cancer

What is the first thing you do regarding BPH?

You must first rule out cancer of the prostate and UTI
Baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) should be obtained
C&S

Which of the following are a stool softner?

Select the three correct answers
Docusate calcium (Surfak)
Docusate sodium (Colace)
Docusate potassium (Dialose)

Which appetite stimulant is an anti-neoplastic hormone?

Dronabinol (Marinol)
Megestrol acetate (Megace)
Oxandrolone (Oxandrin)

An antispasmodic used to treat disorders of the genitourinary tract has what type of effect?

cholinergic effect
anticholinergic effect
sympathetic response

Which drug works on the GI tract?

Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
Sodium Bicarbonate (Alka-Selzer, Tums)
Apsrin

Decreased force of urinary stream, urinary hesitancy, dribbling, urinary retention, and small frequent voidings are signs & symptoms of what urinary disorder?

urinary incontinence
Prostate Cancer
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)

Appetite stimulants are used to treat cachexia (wasting) typically with what kind of patients?

chemotherapy
HIV/AIDS
DM

What are the nursing considerations for antiseptics & anti-infectives?

Select the three correct answers
Obtain urine C & S before starting an antiseptic or anti-infective therapy
Prescription should be completely finished to prevent recurrence of UTI
Encourage fluid intake to flush out the bladder

How would you confirm a UTI?

C & S
UA
Blood culture

Which appetite stimulant is an androgenic/anabolic steroid?

Dronabinol (Marinol)
Megestrol acetate (Megace)
Oxandrolone (Oxandrin)

True/False. Stool softners reduce surface tension of interfacing liquid contents of bowel and promotes incorporation of additional liquid in stool.

How do Anti-diarrheal absorbents work on the GI tract?

increase fluid content of stool
decrease fluid content of stool
decrease fluid content in the intestines

It is not safe to give an anti-diarrheal opiate with someone who has Down's Syndome because the patient can be at risk for what?

Drugs for urinary retention have what type of effect?

What is the action of a urinary retention drug?

stimulate urination by activating the CNS
stimulate urination by decresing bladder tone & increasing urinary sphincter tone
stimulate urination by increasing bladder tone & decreasing urinary sphincter tone; used post-op, post-partum; bladder atony

What kind of urinary tract disorder drug can you use to decrease buning with urination (urogesic), have a localized effect, and can be used in conjunction with anti-infectives?

urinary tract antispasmodics
Urinary tract anesthetics
drugs for urinary retention

What can alpha adrenergic blockes cause?

hypertension
orthostatic hypotension
headaches

What drug can also work for nausea?

antacids
anti-diarrheals
laxatives

What is the vomiting center activated by?

odor, smell, taste
odor, smell, sight
drugs and toxins

What do anticholinergic agents cause the bladder to do?

Select the three correct answers
decrease bladder tone- spasmolytic effect
increase bladder capacity & reduces urinary frequency
improves tone of urinay sphincter thereby decreasing incontinence

In the disease process colitis, Crohn's, & cancer of colon can cause what?

Which anti-emetic antihistamine/anti-cholinergic GI tract disorder drug is used for motion sickness?

Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
Hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
Meclizine (Antivert)

True/False. It is safe to give and anti-diarrheal opiate to a patient with glaucoma.

An anti-ulcer proton pump inhibitor causes what action?

reduces activity of proton (acid) pump
least effective than H2 receptor blocker
blocks hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase in parial cells

What will the anti-ulcer prostaglandin analog cause in pregnancy?

E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella, and C.diff are common organisms of what?

What is the onset of the bulk-forming laxative Pysllium hydrophilic?

10-24 hours
24-48 hours
2-6 hours

True/False. Pepto Bismol has a water-binding effect and absorbs toxins; can cause peptic ulcers

Which appetite stimulant is a controlled substance?

Dronabinol (Marinol)
Megestrol acetate (Megace)
Oxandrolone (Oxandrin)

Which over the counter herb helps with BPH?

garlic
Saw palmetto
dill weed

What color will the urinary tract anesthetic pyridium change your urine to?

Which route is the best route for anti-emetics?

PO
supp
IM

Which anti-emetic 5-HT3 Receptor Blocker for GI tract disorders is strong and used to block serotonin receptors in CTZ, as well as, used for chemotherapy, radiation therapy, & post-op?

Granisetron (Kytril)
Ondasetron (Zofran)
Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)

When should you not use pyridium?

In liver failure
In renal insufficiency
In heart failure

The chemoreceptor triggerzone is activated by?

odor, smell, taste
odor, smell, sight
drugs and toxins

What would you administer with a bulking anti-diarrheal agent?

8oz of water; follow with 8 oz of water
24 oz of water
decrease fluid intake so the drug can be effective

When would you administer an anti-ulcer pepsin inhibitor?

At least 30 minutes before meals & in the morning
At least 1/2 hour before meals & at bedtime
at least 1/2 hour after meals & at bedtime

In patients taking MAOIs and prescribed an anti-diarrheal opiate what can happen if these drugs are taken together?

orthosatic hypotension
shock
HTN crisis

Which anti-emetic 5-HT3 Receptor Blocker for GI tract disorders is strong and used for chemotherapy?

Granisetron (Kytril)
Ondasetron (Zofran)
Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)

Which anti-emetic cannabinoid used for GI tract disorders is extracted from marijuana, adminisered PO, a controlled substance, and given before & after chemotherapy?

Dronabinol (Marinol)
Aprepitant (Emend)
Granisetron (Kytril)

Which anti-emetic anti-cholinergic GI tract disorder drug used for sea sickness that comes in the form of a transdermal patch that you have to apply 4 hours before a trip?

Meclizine (Antivert)
Scopolamine (Hycosine)
Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)

A UTI is treated in how many days?

14-28 days
1-14 days
28-42 days

What are some other side effects of Pyridium?

Select the three correct answers
Nausea
Vomiting
Diarrhea

What does the antacid Aluminum/magnesium (Maalox, Mylanta) do?

What is important to consider as the nurse administering a urinary retention drug?

Select the three correct answers
bronchoconstriction due to increased bronchial secrections
abdominal cramping & diarrhea
reverse effects of anti-cholinergic drugs & do not use with BPH

True/False. Anti-ulcer GI stimulants increase peristalsis in bowel atony or paralytc ileus.

An anti-ulcer antacid will...?

lower PH of HCl & reduce pepsin activity
raise PH of HCl & reduce pepsin activity
Raise ph of HCl & increase pepsin activity

When do anti-emetics work best?

if given after vomiting
if given at the onset of nausea
if given 30 minutes after onset of nausea

What imbalances does diarrhea cause?

Select the two correct answers
H2O, Na+, K+, and bicarbonate
Dehydration, electrolyte, acid-base
GI tract

The Nurse should inform the patient if they use pyridium for more than 2 days what will happen?

Select the two correct answers
urine orange- stains clothing
skin orange- sweating
sclera orange- contact lens

True/False. You need a prescription to receive an anti-diarrheal opiate.

When administering a histamine 2 receptor blocker Ranitidine what can be a side effect with this drug?

True/False. Stool softners do not incease peristalsis.

What gastrointestinal tract disorder drug is used to contol nausea and vomiting by reflexes in GI tract, the medulla of the brain, & vestibular part of ear?

Which anti-emetic dopamine antagonists GI tract disorder drug can cause confusion and have to be used with caution in HTN patients?

Prochlorperzine (Compazine)
Metaclopramide (Reglan)
Promethazine (Phenergan)

True/False. It is ok to combine an anti-diarrheal opiate & antihistamine.

Androgen inhibitors and alpha adrenergic blockers are used for what action?

improve urine flow by decreasing size of prostate or relaxing smooth muscles of prostate & bladder neck
improve urine flow by increasing size of prostate or relaxing smooth muscles of prostate & bladder neck
impove urine flow by acting on the distal tubes

An osmoic laxative will perform what action?

Pull water into the colon & stimulate peristalsis
push water out of the colon & stimulate peristalsis
Pull water into the colon & decrease peristalsis

True/False. The anti-ulcer drug a pepsin inhibitor is not required to have a prescription?

If a UTI is untreated what can it lead to?

bacteremia
urosepsis
death

Which drug decreases acidity in he stomach?

Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)
Sodium Bicarbonate (Alka-Selzer, Tums)
Apsrin

Which drug is used for watery diarrhea caused by tumors; fistulas?

Octreotide (Sandostatin)
Psyllium hydrophilic (Metamucil)
Cholestryamine (Questran)

An antispasmodic is contraindicated what type of patient?

Which bulking anti-diarrheal agent firms stool?

Select the two correct answers
Docusate Calcium (Surfak)
Cholestryamine (Questran)
Psyllium hydrophilic (Metamucil)

Which anti-emetic antihistamine/anti-cholinergic GI tract disorder drug is used for vertigo & nausea caused by inner ear disorders?

Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
Hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
Meclizine (Antivert)

Which anti-emetic Substance P/ Neurokinin 1 Receptor Antagonist for GI tract disorders is the strongest out there and blocks receptors associated with nausea & vomiting?

Ondasetron (Zofran)
Granisetron (Kytril)
Aprepitant (Emend)

When is an anti-diarrheal opiate used?

Adult addicts
In severe diarrhea & neonates addicted to opium
adolescents with addictions

What can aluminum cause?

nausea & vomiting
diarrhea
constipation

What are the signs and symptoms of a UTI?

fever, urinary frequency, urinary retention, abdominal pain, low back bain
hematuria, crystalluria, suprapubic pain, fever, urinary urgency, urinary frequency
Urinary urgency, urinary frequency, hematuria, suprapubic pain, & fever

Which anti-emetic dopamine antagonists GI tract disorder drug can be given PO, IM, Supp, & topical?

Prochlorperzine (Compazine)
Metaclopramide (Reglan)
Promethazine (Phenergan)

How long does it take an androgen inhibitor to work?

2 weeks
6-12 months
4-8 months

The anti-ulcer GI stimulant affects the upper GI tract and causes EPS symptoms like....

Select the three correct answers
pseudoparkinsonism
dystonia
tardive dyskinesia

When administering a non-systemic antacid anti-ulcer drug it is importsnt for the nurse to remember to do what?

give with milk
give on an empty stomach
If giving an aluminum hydroxide (Amphogel) give with meals and at bedtime

When taking an anti-ulcer GI stimulant what do you want to avoid?

sunlight
crowds
alcohol

What are some side effects of an antispasmodic?

Dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision
dehydration, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, hepatotoxicity

When taking an antacid you want to avoid which foods?

avoid acidic fruits & juices
sodas & nuts
avoid milk & high vitamin D foods

What can magnesium cause?

nausea & vomiting
diarrhea
constipation

If you are a nurse of childbearing age and administering dutasteride and finasteride what action would you take regarding the proper safety precauions when giving this medication?

wear goggles
wear a face mask
wear gloves

Regarding a bowel prep laxative....

Select the two correct answers
Osmotic agent; consists of water & electrolytes; give po or NG tube
4L must be consumed for bowel prep GoLYTELY, Fasting & on a clear liquid diet the day before
8L must be consumed for bowl prep GoLYTELY

True/False. Intestinal irritant laxatives stimulate or relax sensory nerve endings in intestinal mucosa; works with smooth muscle to gently increase peristalsis; prolonged use can damage nerve which cause loss of intestinal tone

What are the nursing consideations regarding antacids & anti-emetics?

Select the three correct answers
Determine the cause of nausea, vomiting, & dizziness and all agents that affect CNS cause drowsiness
Implement safety measures as may cause drowsiness and monitor for aspiraion if drowsy or debilitated
Anti-dopaminergic drugs can cause Parkinson-like syndrome or worsen symptoms in a patient with Parkinson's disease

Which anti-emetic antihistamine/anti-cholinergic GI tract disorder drug can be given PO & IM?

Dimenhydrinate (Dramamine)
Hydroxyzine (Vistaril)
Meclizine (Antivert)

What does an anti-diarrheal opiate drug work on?

PNS
the medulla
CNS

What is the action of an Anti-diarrheal opiate?

inhibit GI motility & increase propulsions; increase intestinal secretions
inhibit GI motility & propulsions; decrease intestinal secretions
inhibit GI motility & decrease propulsions; increase intestinal secretions

What does a histamine 2 receptor blocker do?

Select the three correct answers
Block H2 receptor sites of partial cells of the stomach
reduction of gastric acid & raises pH of HCl
causes vitamin B12 deficiency

Anti-diarrheal drugs are selected based on...?

Select the two correct answers
occult blood
amount & frequency
consistency & cause of diarrhea

How many days is prostatitis treated?

1-14 days
28-42 days
14-28 days

What are some things for the nurse to consider when administering a bulk-forming laxative?

Select the three correct answers
Powdered form; mix with juice or water
must take at least 8oz of water or will solidify & cause obstruction in throat, esophagus, colon
fibrous substances that absorb water in intestine & form bulk which stimulates peristalsis & does not cause dependence

What are some nursing considerations when administering an anti-diarrheal?

Select the two correct answers
Determine the cause of diarrhea; collect stool specimen as ordered and if infectious process, appropriate anti-infectives need to be given
Diarrhea should be stopped if toxins need to be eliminated in stool; opium, paregoric & lomoil can cause CNS depression and constipation.
Diarrhea should not be stopped if toxins need to be eliminated in stool; opium, paregoric & lomoil can cause CNS depression and constipation.