Depression and disorders of dopamine

Depression and disorders of dopamine

This quiz will look at the content covered by PHAR3202 (neuropharmacology) on depression, Parkinson's disease and dopamine affective disorder (Schizophrenia) and the treatment options.

published on August 26, 20136 responses 0

Why might anticholinergic drugs (i.e. acting on muscarinic receptor class of AChRs) be useful 'adjunct' therapies?

Parkinson's patients often suffer from bladder and bowel problems.
Anti-muscarinic agents can effectively prolong the amount of DA that can reach
their receptors.
Anti-muscarinic agents can send retrograde signals to the presynapse,
facilitating a greater frequency of release of DA across the synaptic cleft.
Antimuscarinic agents help to balance out levels of ACh to correspond with
levels of DA, thereby treating resting tremors.

Incorrect usage of antidepressants may have synergistic effects that can precipitate severe overdose symptoms. One of these is called 'Serotonin syndrome'. How might it be caused in a clinical sense and what symptoms may appear?

Concurrent use of SSRIs with tyramine containing foods - hypertension,
hyperthermia and headache
Concurrent use of SSRIs with TCAs - nausea and vomiting
Concurrent use of SSRIs with monoamine oxidase inhibitors - agitation,
myoclonus and fever
Concurrent use of SSRIs with benzodiazepines - CNS depression and sedation

Which of the following are NOT considered physical characteristics visible on brains of schizophrenic patients?

Increased number of spines in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex
Enlarged ventricles
Smaller cortical volume, especially of frontal and temporal lobes
Abnormal brain blood flow

Which of the following consists ONLY of dopamine agonists?

Apomorphine, Pergolide, Chlorpromazine
L-Dopa, Pergolide, Carbidopa
Rotigitine, Pergolide, Bromocriptine
Apomorphine, Rotigitine, Benserazide

What is the greatest advantage of using 'Neupro' as a treatment for Parkinson's Disease?

It does not cause dyskinesias.
It also blocks COMT and so increases level of L-Dopa in periphery able to be
taken centrally.
There is a steady and stable release of dopamine over time.
Neupro has a faster onset of action to relieve Parkinsonian symptoms with ease.
It is easily ingested and leads to high plasma concentrations of DA for fast relief.

The use of tricyclic antidepressants, though popular, is not without significant side effects that come with their use. Which of the following side effects are NOT considered of high concern when using TCAs?

Weight gain

The metabolism of L-Dopa makes it difficult to maintain sufficient plasma concentration levels that can permeate the blood brain barrier and exert its action. Below are some drugs that may, or may not be used to increase L-Dopa. Select ONLY the correct drug-mechanism pairs that can be used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

Select the two correct answers
Oclabamide - inhibits metabolism of DA into NE by blocking MAO-B
Entacapone - COMT inhibitor - increases levels of L-Dopa in periphery
Selegiline - inhibits metabolism of DA into NE by blocking MAO-B
Benserazide - COMT inhibitor - increases levels of L-Dopa in periphery
Carbidopa - COMT inhibitor - increases levels of L-Dopa in periphery

Which of the treatments below are effective at treating the symptoms of Type II (negative) schizophrenia?


Which of these sets of adverse effects can occur when taking typical antipsychotic medications?

Weight gain, tardive dyskinesias, agranulocytosis
Weight gain, tardive dyskinesias, gynaecomastia
Weight loss, tardive dyskinesias, amenorrhea
Weight gain, hypertension, tardive dyskinesias

Which of the following only is NOT a POSITIVE symptom of schizophrenia?

Disordered thought patterns
Flat affect