Biopsych 2

quiz copied from an exam for my personal study of biopsych exam in 2011.

published on April 20, 201178 responses 1 4.5★ / 5

The law of specific nerve energies states that:

perception of a repeated stimulus fades.
every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light.
the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus.
any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential.

Light from the left half of the world strikes what part of the retina?

the left half
the right half
the whole retina equally
It depends of the wavelength.

Why does the periphery of the retina detect faint lights better than the fovea does?

Receptors are packed more tightly in the periphery than in the fovea.
The lens focuses light more accurately in the periphery than in the fovea.
The periphery has a higher ratio of cones to rods.
More receptors converge their input onto each bipolar cell.

In what order does visual information pass through the retina?

receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells
receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells

Cells in the retina that provide connections among themselves, as well as with bipolar and ganglion cells are known as:

geniculate cells.
amacrine cells.
optic nerves.

The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the:

blind spot.
optic chiasm.

Which of the following characterizes the fovea?

It has the greatest perception of detail.
It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve.
It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil.
It has more rods than cones.

In comparison to the rods, cones are more:

common toward the periphery of the retina.
sensitive to detail.
sensitive to dim light.
common in rodents and other nocturnal animals.

____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.


Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called:


In comparison to cones, rods:

are more common toward the center of the retina.
are more sensitive to detail.
are more sensitive to dim light.
reach their peak firing levels slowly.

If you wanted to see a faint star at night, you should:

stare straight at it.
look slightly to one side.
look at a mirror's reflection of it.
wait until daytime.

Initially, researchers determined how many types of receptors we have for determining color:

through psychophysical observations.
through the use of biochemical methods.
through genetic markers.
by developing a trichromatic spectrometer.

After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?

Young-Helmholtz theory
trichromatic theory
opponent-process theory
color-constancy theory

After staring at your instructor’s red shirt for an entire class period, the negative afterimage will most likely be:


Color constancy is the ability to:

perceive all wavelengths as the same color.
see color, even in very faint light.
differentiate among many colors and hues.
recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the most common form of color vision deficiency.

blue; yellow
green; blue
red; green
red; blue

____ cells axons makeup the optic nerve.


The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the:

cerebral cortex
superior colliculus
inferior colliculus

In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed information back and forth.

thalamus; cortex
thalamus; inferior geniculate
inferior colliculus; thalamus
thalamus; lateral colliculus

The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of:

lateral inhibition in the retina.
the diffraction of light from the edge's surface.
fatigue of the rods and cones.
the color of the object.

Horizontal cells receive their input from ____; they send output to ____.

rods and cones; ganglion cells
rods and cones; bipolar cells
bipolar cells; ganglion cells
cones; rods

The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is primarily due to lateral inhibition by the:

horizontal cells.
bipolar cells.

Small receptive fields are to ____ cells as large receptive fields are to ____ cells.

parvocellular; magnocellular
magnocellular; parvocellular
magnocellular; koniocellular
koniocellular; parvocellular

Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from:

magnocellular neurons.
bipolar cells that receive input from cones.
the periphery of the retina.

Being able to detect fine details of a color painting would depend most on which of the following types of ganglion cells?


Once information is sent to the secondary visual cortex it:

has reached its final processing destination.
may return to the primary visual cortex.
goes mostly to the primary motor cortex.
is sent back to the retina.

Within the cerebral cortex, the pathway in the visual system responsible for color information also seems to be responsible for what other information?

dark adaptation

Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a dorsal branch important for:

details of shape.
color and brightness.
integrating vision with action.

The pathway associated with integrating vision and movement progresses from the occipital cortex to the:

temporal cortex.
parietal cortex.
visual cortex.
frontal lobe.

Damage to the ventral stream may interfere with:

the ability to describe the shape or size of an object.
walking toward something seen.
reaching to grasp an object.
perceiving whether the lights are on or off.

In the visual system of the mammalian cerebral cortex, the dorsal stream is specialized for detecting ____, and the ventral stream is specialized for detecting ____.


Which of the following would most strongly excite a simple cell in the primary visual cortex?

loud sound
diffuse light throughout the visual field
square picture frame

What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?

circle of a particular radius
circle with a hole in the middle
bar in a particular orientation
bar of a particular length

What is one way to determine whether a given cell in the primary visual cortex is "simple" or "complex"?

the shape of its receptive field
whether its receptive field is monocular or binocular
whether it can respond equally to lines in more than one location
whether it is sensitive to the orientation of the stimulus

What would an investigator find concerning the properties of cells in a single column of the visual cortex?

They have receptive fields in the same location in the visual field.
They have receptive fields of the same angle of orientation.
Moving from dorsal to ventral through the column, each receptive field is slightly larger than the previous one.
Their receptive fields vary randomly.

Cells in the inferior temporal cortex respond vigorously to their preferred shape:

but only if the stimulus is also the preferred color.
as long as it is also a particular size.
as long as it is stationary.
regardless of its exact size or position on the retina.

No known type of brain damage causes a person to lose the ability to recognize one person without impairing the ability to recognize others. What inference can we draw from this fact?

Visual recognition depends on simple cells, not complex cells.
Visual recognition depends on complex cells, not simple cells.
Visual recognition depends on cells in the lateral geniculate.
No one cell is solely responsible for recognizing any one facial pattern.

Color perception depends MOSTLY on the:

magnocellular pathway.
parvocellular pathway.
superior colliculus.
lateral geniculate.

By comparing the slightly different inputs from the two eyes, you achieve:

stereoscopic depth perception.
contrasting imagery.

What is the basis for differences in sensory abilities across species?

The larger the organism, the more intense the stimulus must be to be detected.
All organisms detect all stimuli, but only focus on those involved in survival.
Organisms detect a range of stimuli that are biologically relevant for that species.
The larger the organism, the larger the range of stimuli detected.

What is the intensity of a sound wave called?


What is the perception of the intensity of a sound wave called?


If two voices differ in their frequency, this means they differ in their:

number of waves per second.
height of each wave.

The structure that we commonly refer to as the ear (on the outside of the head) is formally known as the:

tympanic membrane.

The structure that we commonly refer to as the ear (on the outside of the head) is formally known as the:

tympanic membrane.

The eardrum is also known as the:

tympanic membrane.

The tympanic membrane connects to three tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the:

oval window.
hair cells.

Which of the following are presented in the correct order when describing some of the structures that sound waves travel through as they pass from the outer ear to the inner ear?

pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea
tympanic membrane, pinna, cochlea
pinna, stapes, eardrum
malleus, tympanic membrane, oval window, pinna

The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones:

in the inner ear.
in the outer ear.
which transmit information from the outer ear to the middle ear.
which transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

What is the name of the receptor cells of the auditory system?

rods and cones
sound bulbs
hair cells
basilar membranes

How do sound waves ultimately result in the production of receptor potentials?

the tectorial membrane squeezes the auditory nerve
the basilar membrane releases neurotransmitters
hair cells in the cochlea vibrate, causing ion channels to open in their membrane
the scala vestibuli has receptors that create action potentials

At low frequencies, our perception of loudness is determined by:

the number of activated hair cells.
the frequency of action potentials.
which neurons are activated.
which part of the basilar membrane is vibrating.

"Every sound causes one location along the basilar membrane to resonate, and thereby excites neurons in that area." This is one way to state which theory about pitch perception?

volley principle
frequency theory
place theory
opponent-process theory

Where is the basilar membrane most sensitive to the vibrations of very high-frequency sound waves?

closest to the cochlea
at the apex, farthest from the cochlea
about halfway between the cochlea and the apex
It is equally sensitive across the entire membrane.

To what lobe of the cerebral cortex is auditory information sent?


Damage to the primary auditory cortex results in?

difficulty in responding to sequences of sounds
complete deafness
tone deafness
inability to hear sounds other than one's own voice

What kind of deafness is the result of damage to the cochlea or the hair cells?


What can people with conductive deafness hear?

high-pitched sounds but not low-pitched sounds
their own voice better than external sounds
sounds, but not pitch; everything is monotone
nothing at all

Conductive deafness is to ____ as nerve deafness is to ____.

the inner ear; the middle ear
the middle ear; the inner ear
disease; exposure to loud noises
age; disease

What does the vestibular system detect?

the degree of stretch of muscles
vibrations on the skin
the location of sounds
movement of the head

Which two structures provide information about vestibular sensation?

cochlea and otolith organs
semicircular canals and cochlea
semicircular canals and otolith organs
cerebellum and sinuses

The somatosensory system involves sensation of:

sight and sound.
sound and touch.
the body and its movements.
the head and movements of the eyes.

Each spinal nerve has:

either a sensory or a motor component.
both a sensory and a motor component.
connections to most parts of the body.
connections to each of the major internal organs.

Somatosensory information travels from the thalamus to which area of the cortex?

parietal lobe
frontal lobe
limbic cortex

What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?

substance P

The current view of how endorphins decrease the experience of pain is that they:

deplete the brain of substance P.
block the release of substance P.
block sodium channels in the membrane of certain neurons.
increase the sensitivity of neurons to dopamine.

Small-diameter pain fibers:

carry sharp pain information.
carry dull pain information.
do not respond to endorphins.
are associated with large cell bodies.

What are found in papillae?

olfactory receptors
clusters of neurons
hair cells
taste buds

Taste perception in the brain depends on:

relative activity of different taste neurons.
absolute frequency of action potentials.
only taste receptors on the anterior part of the tongue.
the angular gyrus.

Olfactory receptor sites are located:

in the brain.
on cilia.
in the olfactory bulb.
on the basilar membrane.

Deleting a single gene for potassium channels in mice led to an amazing superpower related to the sense of:


Of the following, which one would be most closely associated with experiencing synesthesia?

hearing voices
seeing colors and shapes
seeing colors of letter or words
inability to feel pain